(Last Updated on : 11/01/2018)
Baiga Tribe is a primitive Dravidian
tribe located in the Indian states
and West Bengal
and also in Madhya Pradesh
. These are minor scheduled tribes
, still dependent upon forest resources
. They dwell in the remotest regions of the state, mostly in the forest
ed regions and hilly areas of Jharkhand. The Baiga tribe is also known as Bhumia which means lord of the soil.
Origin of Baiga Tribe
Baiga tribe is one of the most ancient tribal groups
of the country. They belong to the Dravidian groups and are one of the ancient tribes of the eastern
as well as central India tribes
. The Baigas were first discovered in 1867 and described as wild. In the regions of Mandla
and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh
, the Binjhwar sub-caste is considered as the civilised sub-division of Baiga tribe. The Baiga tribe are an offshoot of the Bhuiya tribe
of Chhota Nagpur
. All these tribal
groups speak a corrupted form of Indo-Aryan tribal languages
Society of Baiga Tribe
There are altogether seven sub-divisions or sub-castes of Baiga Tribe namely Binjhwar, Bharotia, Raibhaina, Kathbhaina, Narotia or Nahar, Kondwan or Kundi and Gondwaina. Of these the Binjhwar, Bharotia and Narotia are well known. The name of the Binjhwar tribe
is said to have been derived from Vindhya mountain range
. In Baiga tribal societies, the rule of exogamy is strictly observed. In Kawardha
, it is believed that the three sub-castes intermarry but they do not eat together. In Balaghat, Bharotias and Narotias can intermarry as well as eat together. Each of the sub-tribe has been divided into several exogamous sects. The names of these sub-sects are quite similar with those of the Gond tribe
. Polygamy is also allowed in these tribal societies.
Religion of Baiga Tribe
The Binjhwar sub-caste professes Hinduism
. Thakur Deo is their local deity. Further, several Hindu deities
are also worshipped by the Baiga people.
Tattoo Culture of Baiga Tribe
ing is the salient feature of Baiga Tribes who have settled down in various states of eastern India
. Tattooing amongst the Baiga tribes begins with the arrival of winter season
and continues till the summer season
. The women
tattoo experts are known as Godharins.
Occupation of Baiga Tribe
Many of the people who belong to the tribe
by profession, though their chief occupation has been shifting cultivation. Earlier, the Baigas practiced shifting cultivation. Presently several attempts have been taken by the government
to train them about regular cultivation process. In recent times they have discarded shifting cultivation.
Festivals of Baiga Tribe
are the two main festivals
celebrated by the Baiga tribe of Jharkhand. Sarhul is celebrated during the spring season when the Shaal trees
get new leaves. The Karma festival is a festival of agriculture
and is very sacred to the Baiga tribe and also the other tribal people of Jharkhand
, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.