Galo Tribe is a Central Eastern Himalayan tribe, concentrated in southwestern side of East Siang district
, the southeastern side of Upper Subansiri district
, as well as in some small regions in Itanagar
, Lower Dibang Valley District
, and Changlang district
Galo tribe mainly speaks the language of Tani group of Tibeto-Burman languages. The Galo Tribe is listed as a Scheduled Tribe from 1950 under the Scheduled Tribal List published by the Government of India.
The primary occupation of the Galo tribe is Wet rice
cultivation. Wet rice cultivation now accounts for the majority of production in the Galo tribal area, however shifting cultivation or the Jhum Cultivation is also still practiced, especially in remote villages away from urban townships.
Galo Tribe are socio-economically dominant in their area. Around 90 percent of the Galo tribal children learn Galo as their first language, although almost all are also bilingual and borrow frequently from Assamese, Hindi and English.
A significant and increasing number of Galo children, however, do not learn Galo as a native language, instead speaking a semi-creolized form of Hindi as their mother tongue. This phenomenon is especially prominent in urban areas, and among wealthy families. Indigenous religious traditions persist in most Galo areas.
In some areas, an institutionalized form of `Donyi-Poloism` has been developed, within which indigenous religious traditions are re-interpreted in terms of certain Hindu concepts and practices, and novel practices such as hymn singing and incense-burning are practiced.
Christianity in this area is also rapidly on the rise, especially in foothill areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Galo Trbial people are often referred to by non-Galo Tribe (especially the Minyong-Padam group) as Gallong language. It is an archaic pronunciation reflecting an earlier stage of the Galo language prior to its loss of the velar nasal in codas. This is a generic term for a loose grouping of several central and eastern Tani tribes speaking several distinct languages. In most Tani languages, Adi (Galo adi) means simply `hill (people)`.
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