(Last Updated on : 20/01/2012)
The legacy of the Mughal Empire lingers in the wide connotation of the word "Mughal" (Persian), or "Mogul" in the recent times. We crown the eminent , great, personages with the aura of the title, "Moguls". Indeed, the Mughals were a magnificent breed of people. The Mughal Emperors are famous for the creation and management of one of the greatest empires, the Mughal empire from the early sixteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. They had set a glorious example of "unity in diversity". We wonder at their outstanding organization of the teeming millions of the then India and the different warring states into one integrated whole. And even when the empire no longer exists today, physically, memories of Babur, Akbar, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb will never fade into the darkness of oblivion.
Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur ,born on February 14, 1483 was the founder of the Mughal Empire. This Timurite Prince of Turkestan was the grandson of the renowned Central Asian Conqueror , Tamerlane. Babur had his eye on the Delhi Sultunate. He crossed the mountains and entered into Hindusthan. He utilized the opportunity of internal rivalry within the Sultunate of Ibrahim Lodhi. He enthusiastically accepted the tempting invitation from Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. Tactfully, he attacked India in 1526. With a veteran , efficient army of only 12,000 Babur braved an enormous Lodhi battalion. Babur was farsighted. He employed firearms, guncarts, superior cavalry, mobile artillery-advanced war-mechanism with which the Sultan,s soldiers were not familiar. Babur left the Lodhi army shattered in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.Hence, Western historians often regard this battle as the first "Gunpowder" victory.
Babur routed the joined forces of Afghans and the Sultan of Bengal. He had sown the seeds of what would grow into one of the biggest imperial achievement, the great Mughal Empire in the future to come.
: Babur was succeeded by his son Humayun(1530-1556). He did`nt inherit the wisdom of his father. His ascension to the throne turned his life into a hell. He gained a strong foothold in Kabul. But handed over to his brother Kamran the responsibility of Kabul. Kamran with the passage of time, availed of the careless, lenient attitude of Humayun and asserted greater self-independence, than what he initially got.
Akbar : The Mughal Empire saw its optimum progress during the reign of Akbar. Akbar`s name is true to his mettle.The meaning of the Persian word "Akbar" is the "Greatest One". He is certainly Akbar, the Great, the greatest of the Mughals.
Jahangir, the anguished soul had hardly any resemblance with his wise father, Akbar. During Akbar`s lifetime only, he demanded rebelliously the possession of Agra. However, he later calmed down.But all through ,he remained restless,with unfulfilled passions regarding his love-relatioship with Anarkali.
: Shah Jahan was the third son of Jahanghir and his Rajput queen. He conducted a very expensive military campaign to recover Kandahar, Balkh, and Badakshan.But this only wasted four crore rupees in two years with no land acquisition as such. However ,the Mughal entrapment of the two states of Deccan, Golcunda and Bijapur as vassal states by 1636. They were assisted by the cunning son of Malik Ambar of Ahmadnagar , called Fateh Khan. He had antipathy against the Nizam of Ahmadnagar. The Mughals accomplished their mission of controlling the Peninsular realm of Deccan.A distinct feature of Shah Jahan`s reign was that the country luxuriated in the peace of no-foreign invasion.
: Aurangzeb, ascended the throne of the Mughal Empire, in 1658 through bloodstained wiping away of his own brothers,the other contestants in the battle for authority.He assumed the title of Alamgir (Conqueror of the World) Padshah(emperor) Ghazi(Holy Warrior) to propound the essence of the roles he would play.His experience as the governor of Gujrat, Multan and Sindh , helped him to strengthen his much -coveted position.
Shah Alam II and Bahadur Shah
: Muazzam, Azam and Muhammad Kam Baksh warred for emerging as the next ruler. Muazzam, removed the other two candidates.He renamed himself as Bahadur Shah II
during the time of his coronation.He was engaged in managing the political upheavals in Rajasthan and Punjabs. The Sikhs angered by the execution of Guru Teg Bahadur by Aurangzeb were determined to annihilate the Mughals. The empire was standing then on the verge of collapse.
Downfall Of The Mughal Empire
: The Mughal Empire which gave Indian History an era of resplendent accomplishments and paramount power disintegrated into dust with the irreparable mistakes of emperors like Aurangzeb.
The Mughal Art
: The splendor of Mughal art and architecture always appeals to the aesthetic spirit of a lover of art. The subtlety of the finesse and the dazzle of the aura associated with the artistic achievements calls for a keen interest in the subject.
Under the Mughals(1526-1858) India grew into a prolific centre of cultural cultivation ,literary pursuit and architectural marvel,comparable to the Iran under the Safavids .
Artistic ventures started experiencing decline since the orthodox rule of Aurangzeb. Nevertheless, the coming up of the Lahore Masjhid is a ray of hope in the depressing darkness.
However , the Mughals never perish into the void of oblivion .Their artistic richness continues to enchant admirers forever.