Golconda Fort was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Golconda. It was flourished in the 14th to 16th century, during the rule of Kakatiya Dynasty. It is situated 11 kilometers from Hyderabad, the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. With walls ranging from 17 to 34 feet broken by 87 semi-circular bastions, some reaching 60 feet in height, and built on a granite hill that is 400 feet high, it remains one of Indias most magnificent fortress complexes. It is now one of the most important tourist attractions in India.
Golconda fort was first built by Kakatiya as part of their western defences. It was built in 945 CE-970 CE on the lines of the Kondapalli fort. The city and fortress are built on a granite hill that is 120 meters high and is surrounded by massive crenulated ramparts. Golconda Fort was rebuilt and strengthened by Pratapa Rudra of Kakatiya dynasty. The fort was further strengthened by Musunuri Nayaks who overthrew the Tughlak army occupying Warangal, which is now under the administration of Warangal District of Telangana.
Later Golconda was ceded by the Musunuri chief, Kapaya Nayaka to the Bahmanis rulers as part of the treaty in 1364 AD. The fort became the capital of a major province in the Sultanate and after its collapse the capital of the Qutb Shahi kings. The fort finally fell into ruins after a blockade and its fall to Mughal emperor Aurangazeb in 1687 AD.
After the collapse of the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda and its fort rose to prominence as the seat of the Qutb Shahi dynasty around 1507. Over a period of 62 years the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi kings into a massive fort of granite, extending around 5 km in circumference.
Golconda remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort, whose 7 km outer wall enclosed the city. The state became a focal point for Shia Islam in India, for instance, in the 17th century, Bahraini clerics, Sheikh Ja'far bin Kamal al-Din and Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani both emigrated to Golkonda or Golconda.
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