(Last Updated on : 30/11/2012)
Occupation in Indian villages reflects the base of the socio-economic culture prevalent in rural areas of the country. The main occupation types in Indian villages comprise of agriculture, fishing, weaving, cottage industry, handicrafts etc.
Since the ancient period, Indian villagers have been involved in various occupations out of which, agriculture is the principal one. Apart from agriculture, the villagers are also involved in other occupations like fishing, farming, cottage industry, pottery, business, various small, medium or large scale industries, carpentry, etc. In the contemporary period, the evolution and advancement in different industrial and technological sectors in India have opened new job opportunities for the Indian villagers.
Traditional Occupation in Indian Villages
Agriculture remains the principal occupation in Indian village society
from the ancient period. The climatic conditions in most parts of India are suitable for agricultural activities and hence, India has become one of the leading producers of agricultural products in the world. In the changing time agriculture has been replaced by other occupations in different parts of India in the contemporary period. In the villages of hilly areas, the principal occupations include agriculture and gardening. Agriculture is still the major source of income in the northern and eastern Indian villages.
Other occupation in Indian villages includes the priests, carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers, weavers, potters, oil pressers, leatherworkers, sweepers, water bearers, toddy-tappers and many others.
Non-Traditional Occupation in Indian Villages
However, most of the modern day Indian villages present a different scenario with villagers taking up the non-traditional occupations. They are involved in academics as teachers; truckers, clerks or getting engaged with various cottage industries, regardless of which caste or class they belong to.
Different types of occupations are found in the modern Indian villages apart from agriculture or farming or the traditional occupations. The climate and location influence occupation in Indian villages to a large extent. Several villagers in the South Indian states like Kerala
, Andhra Pradesh
, Tamil Nadu
and others have taken fishing as the main source of income. This is mainly because of the coastal location of the states.
Cottage Industry in Indian Villages
Another major occupation in Indian villages is the cottage industry. Cottage industry has emerged as a major source of employment in Indian villages over the period of time. Many villagers are occupied in various kinds of art and crafts works. The villagers produce different types of handicrafts products and many of them are earning their livelihoods by marketing them. The occupations like artisan in pottery, wood, cloth, metal and leather have been in existence in Indian villages, since the ancient period and are found even in the modern times. Many Indian villagers are dependent on these occupations to earn their livelihoods.
The women in the rural areas, too are actively getting involved in different industries like matchbox and firework industries, Bidi making, agate and slate industries, coffee
industries, brick industry, construction industry, electronics industry, spice industries, etc. Among these, the Bidi, slate or brick making industries are the most well spread industries in Indian villages. Apart from these industries, the Indian villagers have also become sweepers and scavengers.
Tourism Industry in Indian Villages
Tourism in India
in the Indian villages has emerged as one of the chief occupations in Indian villages, in the contemporary period. Villages in most parts of India are endowed with natural beauty and have a rich tradition and cultural heritage.
The rich cultural diversity in the villages attracts many tourists from all over the world every year. This has encouraged many villagers to get involved in various tourism related occupations. The villagers work as tourist guides or run different kinds of business in the famous tourist spots or even provide accommodation facilities to the tourists to earn their livelihoods.
Other than the occupations mentioned above, there are several other means of livelihood in rural India such as community, social and personal services; mining and quarrying; real estate; post and telecommunication; health and social work; educational services; public administration and national defence; wholesale and retail trade; utilities supply and other activities.
The occupation scenario in Indian villages has changed mainly due to the changing economical scenario of the villages of India. The invention of new technologies has encouraged the Indian villagers to take up new occupations. Apart from that, decline in the fertility of lands in many villages has also forced many villagers to give up their traditional occupation of agriculture. Many of these villagers have moved to the nearby urban areas in search for alternative occupation and sources of income.