(Last Updated on : 17/12/2013)
Indian plants are of diverse types and categories. These varied types of plants in India not only look different but also have various utilities and features. Some Indian plants grow throughout the year, while the other blooms only twice a year. Further, there are certain Indian plants that are used for medicinal purposes and there are some plants that serve solely the purpose of decoration and ornamentation. Some plants are considered as Indian annual plants
, which live for a year or less than a year. These types of Indian plants are popularly known as seasonal flowering plants as they flower only for maximum three to four months. These annual plants normally grow through seeds. They grow, flower, and reproduce more seeds and finally die, within a year. Asters, Marigolds
, Balsam, Basil, Dianthus, Petunias and Salvias are some of the important Indian annual plants.
Types of plants
Biennial plants in India
takes two years to grow from seed to execution, bloom and die. These types of seasonal flowering Indian plants bloom in the second year of plantation. In order to have flowers one year after another, one has to plant seeds of biennial flowers every year. Foxglove is the most common biennial plant in India. Perennial plants are those types of Indian plants that bloom throughout the year. Bleeding Heart, Gerberas, Anthuriums, Geraniums, Water Lily
, are some widespread perennials in India. These particular type pf plants mainly grow in acidic soils. Watering should be deep, sporadic and applied directly to the soil for the proper growth of these plants.
Shrubs in India are a common sight. They are basically woody plants having slightly short stems with branches almost near the ground. Shrubs are generally used for ornamental purposes. Flowering shrubs are bushy and blossom flowers all through the year. Ixora, Mosanda, Pentas, Hibiscus and Lantana are the most common shrubs in India.
Ornamental shrubs are found with evergreen foliage throughout the year, but do not have any flower. Juniperus, Aralia, Acalypha
and Crotons are the common ornamental shrubs found in India. The flowering and ornamental trees are the attractive growths usually seen in gardens. Peacock flower tree, Cornus Florida, Magnolia, Cassia fistula, Hydrangea Paniculata, Tecoma argentea and Jacaranda trees are some of the most common flowering and ornamental trees in India. Besides, Rangoon Creeper
, Coral tree
and Railway creeper, Bougainvilleas are probably the most wanted creeper for ornamentation in India. Climbers are those plants that require a support to grow as they have soft stems.
The bulb plants in India
are particular stem structures, which are planted underneath the soil. Bulb plants grow; flower then the leaves remain for sometime and fade away completely until next year. Daffodils, Tulips, Bluebells are the best examples of bulb plants in India. Indian medicinal plants
are broadly used in different treatment methods like Ayurveda
and so on. Kharjuri, Tulsi
, Bael fruit
, Ashoka tree
, Neem tree
are some of the primary medicinal plants grown in India. Apart from all these Indian plants there are vines, creepers and climbers which are basically the vertically growing plants with a support and often used as fences and borders.
Medicinal values of plants
Kariyat: It is also known as the "creat". It is an annual herb which grows erect up to a height of 1.4 feet, tastes bitter, with smooth leaves and white flowers, and is very useful for medicinal purposes. Since the ancient times this plant is used for medicinal purposes. Kariyat is the main ingredient for ayurveda medicines.
Malabar Nut: This plant is pretty useful for curing common cough, asthma and cold. Malabar Nut is a common name in the world of ayurveda medicines and has its mention in Sanskrit scriptures.
Blue Pussy Leaf: This is often used as a salt substitute and the sap of this plant is very useful for dealing with insects and other worms.
Mountain Knot Grass: This plant is very useful for addressing the issues relating to kidney and gall bladder. Ayurveda suggests internal intake of decoction of the plant to help dissolve the stone and also clear the urinary tract.
Indian plants are known for their wide range of characteristics, benefits and appearance. Indian plants have ornamented every nook and corner of the nation with its bright coloration and lovely flowers.