(Last Updated on : 23/08/2013)
Indian flora and fauna comprise a rich diversity that is rarely found in any other part of the world. This Asian country is blessed with dense forests, island archipelago, deserts, sanctuaries, plains, mountains, swamplands, highlands and several other eco zones. A favourable climate has also led to the thriving of the Indian flora and fauna. Numerous trees, flowers and a wide variety of wildlife are scattered throughout the sub continent. There are 45000 plant species that include the Indian medicinal plants
, Indian bulb plants and others. As per the distribution of flora, the country can be classified into several zones namely Eastern Himalayas, Western Himalayas, Indus Plain, Ganga Plain, Assam
, Malabar, Deccan and Andamans.
Diversity of Indian Flora
The favourable climatic conditions of the country support the diversity of Indian flora and fauna, which no other country of the globe can boast of. The floral wealth of the country varies from Alpine to temperate thorn, from thick tropical forests to temperate woods, from cone-bearing to evergreen, from scrubs to deciduous forests. Apart from being a part of the landscape, the Indian trees have religious and cultural significance as well. While Banyan tree
is considered the National Tree, Mango tree
is officially the National Fruit of India. The Indian flowers present a delightful sight along with their fascinating fragrance. Indian flora and fauna, thus, is also helpful in attracting tourists from all parts of the world. Such abundance of flora adds resplendence to the pristine Indian nature.
Diversity of Indian Fauna
While discussing about the natural beauty it is impossible to leave out the Indian wildlife
. Nearly 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and around 500 diverse varieties of mammals are found in this country. Further, a broad variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles are also found as per the census estimate. Numerous animals, comprising predators, reptiles and insects, are also found in the Indian subcontinent. The majestic Royal Bengal Tiger
is the National Animal of India while Peacock
is its National Bird. The virgin forests provide perfect habitats to the Indian birds and animals.
To protect the wildlife bird sanctuaries and several national parks are maintained by the Government of India
. Indian states like Rajasthan
, Uttar Pradesh
, West Bengal
and others are renowned for their national parks. India has 84 national parks, and 447 wild life sanctuaries, covering a surface area 150,000 sq km.
Diversity in Indian Mammals
Mammals found in India include the lions, elephant
, wild bison
, the Royal Bengal Tiger
and different varieties of deer
, monkeys, wild goats, etc. It also includes a large number of lizards, snake varieties and crocodiles and all these together account for the reptile count. Further, the bird life of the country is also beautiful and very colourful. Some of the common Indian birds are geese ducks, mynahs, pigeons, cranes, pheasants, parakeets and hornbills.
Indian flora and fauna, thus, is considered as a gateway to explore the striking natural beauty that enwraps the entire country.