(Last Updated on : 26/10/2010)
The Lok Sabha formed one of the cores of the Indian Parliament which is divided into two houses namely the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. After gaining independence in 1947 it was decided to have a democratic status for future India where people could express their views through their representatives. Till 2009 there have been 15 Lok Sabha elections.
Composition of Lok Sabha
The Constitution of India has limited the composition of Lok Sabha up to a maximum of 552 members including not more than 20 members representing the people of Union Territories and only 2 members from the Anglo-Indian community if the president finds it less represented. As of now the total size of the Lok Sabha comprises of 545 members including the Speaker as well as two more members, if any.
Tenure of Lok Sabha
The regular tenure of Lok Sabha is for five years if not disturbed due to some emergencies as in case of Proclamation of Emergency when the tenure will be extended for one year. However, while a declaration of Emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not more than one year at a time and not extending, in any case, beyond a period of six months after the declaration has ceased to function.
Membership of Lok Sabha
A member of Lok Sabha is required to be a citizen of India, completing an age of 25 years, should be mentally sound, should not be a bankrupt and should not have any criminal record in his past records. Further the seats of reserved categories should be filled by the members of their own community.
The total elective membership is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States. The number is divided among the 28 States and the 7 Union Territories. Anglo-Indians (if nominated 2 by the President under Article 331 of the Constitution).
Sessions of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha divides its work into three sessions all through the year.
* Budget Session : February to May ,
* Monsoon Session : July to September,
* Winter Session : November to December
Presiding officer in Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha elects one of its own members as its Presiding Officer and he is called the Speaker. The Deputy Speaker who is also elected by Lok Sabha assists the speaker. The behaviour of dealing in Lok Sabha is the responsibility of the Speaker.
Powers of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha possesses some special powers which make it more powerful than Rajya Sabha. These powers include Motion of No Confidence against the existing government which can only be passed in the Lok Sabha; passing of Money Bill which is again introduced by Lok Sabha and can be deliberated to Rajya Sabha for fourteen days .If it is not rejected by Rajya Sabha or the period lapse after 14 days from the day of introduction without any action or recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha is not accepted by Lok Sabha, then it is considered passed. Also the Budget of the year is presented by the Finance Minister in the House of Commons. In case of other bills non-financial (ordinary) bills, after the bill has been passed by the House where it was originally tabled (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha), it is sent to the other house, where it may be kept for a maximum period of 6 months. If the other House rejects the bill or a period of 6 months elapses without any action by that House, or the House that originally tabled the bill does not accept the recommendations made by the members of the other house, it results in a deadlock.
Among the other powers, the Lok Sabha possesses certain equal powers with Rajya Sabha. This includes initiating and passing of any bill on Constitutional Amendments; equal powers in passing a motion on the impeachment of the President by two-third membership of the membership of the house. Equal powers in initiating and passing of impeachment against the judges of Supreme Court and state high courts by a majority of the membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present and voting); equal powers in initiating and passing a resolution for declaring war or national emergency or constitutional emergency in a state. In case the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the declaration of Emergency Rajya Sabha becomes the sole de facto and de jure parliament which cannot be dissolved
of the .
Representation of States and Union Territories in Lok Sabha
Besides all this the Lok Sabha is also important for being truly state representative with its various regional parties and their composition.
Subdivision No. of Constituencies
Arunachal Pradesh 2
Himachal Pradesh 4
Jammu and Kashmir 6
Tamil Nadu 39
Uttar Pradesh 80
West Bengal 42
Sub-division No. of Constituencies
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1
Daman and Diu 1
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1
Membership by Party
* UPA (Union Progressive Alliance) : 262
* NDA ( National Democratic Alliance) : 159
* THIRD FRONT : 79
* FOURTH FRONT : 27
* OTHER PARTIES AND INDEPENDENTS : 16
Thus with the Lok Sabha the Indian Parliament has been one of the most representative which has truly represented itself as the government of the people, by the people ,for the people. Being the main machinery of Indian administration Lok Sabha has created a new example giving meaning democracy in a large country like India.