(Last Updated on : 06-07-2018)
Sramana is one who believes that he himself is responsible for his self-eminence or decadence, happiness and sorrow, growth and decline. Thus the Sramana tradition inspires man to elevate himself by becoming self-reliant and self-exerting. Sramanacara is the code of conduct prescribed for Sadhu and Sadhvi in Jainism
. Sramana is focus entity in Jain tradition. His spiritual discipline is the life-long vow of universal brotherhood.
Preparations for Sramana Order
Before entering the Sadhu Sangha a householder needs to get initiated or take Diksha
. The march from the stage of a house-holder to reach the stage of an ascetic involves complete detachment from mundane affairs and severance of all connections with the family
, kith and kin, friends, etc. Now that one has renounced the world and entered the Sramana order, he/she needs to strictly observe the vows and austerities with full faith and utmost firmness. From morning to evening, the monks and nuns need to be engaged in different types of acts that are prescribed by the guru and scripture
. They are not supposed to waste even a single minute carelessly. An ascetic has to have control over his passions and senses. He needs to make efforts for Samvara
and observe penance and make it a point to observe the rules of conduct without any faults or transgressions.
Rules in Sramanacara
Amongst the numerous rules that need to be observed by a Sramana, here are some of the most important ones:
1. The Mahavratas (Five Great Vows):
First of all he needs to strictly follow the five Mahavratas. These vows
should be practiced through fivefold code of knowledge, perception, conduct, austerity and vigor.
2. The Samvar:
In order to stop the influx of karmas-Samvar, he needs to observe 5 kinds of Samitis, 3 kinds of Guptis, 10 kinds of Yati Dharma, 12 kinds of Anupreksha and 5 kinds of Charitra or conduct.
Further, there are seven external observances that include; plucking of ones own hair periodically, staying unclothed ( in some sects), keeping away from bathing, keeping away from cleansing of teeth, taking alms in the standing posture, taking only one meal
a day preferably and sleeping on bare ground. Purpose of such acts is to avoid violence to other Jivas
Six Essential Duties of Sramana
In addition to this, he has to observe the six essential duties known as the Sadavasyaka regularly. This is an indispensable obligatory duty that ought to be performed every day without failure. The Sadavasyaka that are to be observed by Sravakas are as follows:
Samayika is a desire for liberation through self-control.
2. Chaturvimmsatistava: It is a devotional praise of the 24 Tirthankara
to acquire their virtues.
It means offering of respectful ceremonial salutation to the Jina, deserving monks and nuns or the sacred scriptures
Pratikramana or repentance is a ritual
where one confesses for ones wrong doings. It is a very essential rite that leads to purification and perfection.
Kayotsarga or meditation
is bodily detachment. It helps in shedding of karmas.
Pratyakhyana or renunciation is refraining from commission of sins in the future.
Daily Activities of Sramana
A Sramanas daily activities mainly include:
- Scanning of his requisites
- Study of self
- Confession of faults
- Collecting alms
- Condemnations of transgressions
Thus, a Sramana is supposed to focus his activities primarily on purification of soul
and avoid all sorts of violence. He is also supposed to guide and motivate lay persons to follow path of liberation
but must avoid any action which can develop attachment with any individual or possessions.