(Last Updated on : 21/06/2018)
Sad Dravya called as substances are one of the most important tenets of Jainism
. There are infinite things in this universe and whatever exists are all Reals. According to Jainism, the meaning of word Dravya
or Real means "that which exists".
Six Reals in Jainism
According to Jain thought all that exist in this universe is classified in six major categories called six Reals or six Dravyas. They are:
Dharma (Motion assisting real)
Adharma (Steadiness or equilibrium assisting real)
Jiva - Soul:
Jiva has consciousness which is not there in other Reals. It has the natural tendency to go upwards when it is in pure form.
Pudgal - Matter:
Pudgala is non Conscious and helps in experiencing pleasure and pain. It is matter as commonly understood by science. According to Physics subject, it consists of all the atoms and their substance. Pudgal consist of varying numbers of its minutest parts called Parmanu. It has the property of integration and disintegration of its Parmanu and hence this name. Pudgala is that which undergoes constant outward change in form.
Dharma - Medium of Motion:
This type of real is very specific in Jain Philosophy
. The word Dharma used here is a real which assist the motion of Jiva and Pudgal. Dharma is inactive itself. Conscious objects and other matters have their own motion but the medium through which they gain their motion is called Dharma.
Adharma - Medium of Rest:
Adharma assists the steadiness, rest or equilibrium of Jiva and Pudgal. Every matter whether atom or big stars are all in continuous motion and yet apparently look in steadiness or equilibrium. Adharma in Jainism signifies the principle of non-motion.
Akasha - Space:
Akasha is empty space in which all other Dravya find accommodation. Akasha provides space. It is eternal and uncreated. Without space Dharma and Adharma cannot exist and Pudgalas as well as Jivas cannot move. Space is also unconscious and is inseparable constituent of universe.
Kala - Time:
Kala as Dravya it is different. Kala shows Change. It is beginning-less, unconscious and helpful in measuring the changes in Pudgalas. Time is eternal and an unavoidable component of universe.