Nagapattinam covers an area of 14.92 square kilometres. This census town is situated at a distance of 350 kilometres from Chennai, 14 kilometres from Karaikal, 40 kilometers from Mayiladuthurai, 40 kilometres from Kumbakonam, 80 kilometers from Thanjavur and 25 km from Thiruvarur.
Nagapattinam became the important centre in trade and commerce during the period of Chola rule in South India. This town at that time served as their important port for commerce and east-bound naval expeditions.
The Chudamani Vihara in Nagapattinam was constructed by the Sri Lankan king with the help of the ruler of Chola kingdom. Chudamani Vihara is an important Buddhist monastery of the times.
Nagapattinam was settled by the Portuguese trader in the early phase of modern age. Later, the Dutch East India Company made Nagapattinam as the capital of Dutch Coromandel from 1660 to 1781.
In November 1781, Nagapattinam was conquered by the colonial army of British East India Company. Nagapattinam served as the capital of Tanjore district from 1799 to 1845 under Madras Presidency of the British East India Company. Nagapattinam continued to be a part of Thanjavur district in India. In 1991, Nagapattinam was made as the headquarters of the newly created Nagapattinam District.
The census town of Nagapattinam is located at 10.77 degree north to 79.83 degree east. The town is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east, Uppanar River in the south, Thiruvarur district in the west, Thanjavaur district in the North West and Karaikkal and Puducherry in the north. The town lies in the sea level.
Nagapattinam covers the pilgrimage tourism sites. The major temples in Nagapattinam are Nagore Durgah, Kayarohanaswami Temple and Soundararajaperumal Temple. There are other major Hindu pilgrimage sites located in this town adds the tourism sector to the national and international level tourists. Sikkal, Velankanni, Poompuhar, Kodikkarai, Vedaranyam, Mannargudi and Tharangambadi are the popular tourist spots in Nagapattinam town.
Nagapattinam is easily connected with the roadways, railways and waterways. The roadway is the major mode of transport to Nagapattinam.