(Last Updated on : 27/06/2014)
Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve, located in the Erode district
of the Indian state Tamil Nadu
, is a significant wildlife haven. Nestled in the Sathyamangalam
forest range, it serves as an important wildlife corridor in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
which forms a link between the four other adjoining protected areas including Bandipur National Park
, Mudumalai National Park
, Sigur Plateau and Billigiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary. It was notified on 3rd November 2008 under the Wild Life Protection Act of 1972
and was expanded in 2011. In 2013 the sanctuary was enlisted as the fourth Tiger Reserve as a part of Project Tiger
in Tamil Nadu. The administration of the conservation of the Sathyamangalam Forest Division is governed by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department through Conservator of Forests, Erode, Divisional Forest Officer, Gobichettipalayam and District Forest Officer, Sathyamangalam.
Geography of Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
Spanning over an area of 1411.6 square kilometres it is accredited as the largest wildlife sanctuary of the state. The region receives an average rainfall of 824 millimetres. The temperature of the place varies from 21 to 33 degree Celsius. The core zone of the sanctuary comprises 917.27 square kilometres.
Flora of Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary is mainly dominated by tropical dry forest and forms a part of the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion. Apart from these the five distinct types of forest which can be spotted here include thorn forests, dry deciduous, mixed-deciduous, semi-evergreen and tropical evergreen (Shola). Evergreen forests can be found in small patches, mostly in the high altitude hill tops of Sathyamamgalam which ranges from 750 to 1649 metres in height. Regions of high altitude are rich in semi evergreen forest whereas mixed and dry deciduous forests grow on middle altitude slopes. In the foot hills and middle elevations, thorn forests are found. Major population of herbivores are supported by mixed shrubland and grassland.
Fauna of Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary serves as an important link between the Eastern Ghats
and Western Ghats
which allows the gene flow between the faunal populations of the two regions. It shelters about 28 Tigers and 850 Indian Elephants
for which it is known to be the largest elephant habitat of the country. Royal Bengal Tigers
, Gaur, Striped Hyenas
, Sloth Bear
, Wild Boar
, Four-Horned Antelope, Barking Deer
, Sambar Deer, Black buck
, Spotted Deer and many more wild animals have been recorded here. About 230 avian species dwell here including Crows, Mynahs, Babblers
, Bulbuls etc. The place has been noted to be a significant one for the Vultures of south India.
Tribes in Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary is also inhabited by indigenous tribal population which mostly belong to Soliga communities and Irula tribe. 12 revenue settlements and 7 forest settlements have been identified here. The forest was also known to be the abode of legendary Indian bandit leader Koose Muniswamy Veerapan who extensively practiced poaching of ivory and sandalwood
of the forest.