(Last Updated on : 04/07/2012)
Chakresvari or Apraticakra is a Yakshi of the first Jain Tirthankara, Bhagwan Rishabh Dev
. As per the Digambara
texts Chakresvari has been resembled only in two varieties of forms, namely, the four armed and the twelve armed. According to the Pratisthasarasamgraha of Vasunandi the four armed Chakresvari rides a garuda i.e. eagle and bear discs in her two arms. In her other two hands she holds a matulinga, a fruit and the varada mudra. The twelve armed Chakresvari rides over an eagle and holds discs in her eight hands. In the remaining four hands she carries two vajras i.e. thunderbolts and the in the other two a fruit and the varada mudra
. The four armed form of Chakresvari is most famous in Deogarh. She has also been represented in two armed, six armed, eight armed, ten armed and twenty armed varieties of forms. In most of her images she rides over a gatuda and holds a disc, conch and mace symbols and is seated in lalitasana. She is adorned with kirita-mukuta, necklaces, stanahara, dhoti, bodice, girdle, anklets, bracelets, armlets etc.
Forms of Chakresvari
The various forms of Chakresvari in Deogarh have been described below:
The Two Armed Form
: The two armed Chakresvari has been represented by figures. These belong to the 10th century. Both the figures hold a disc and a conch shell
The Four Armed Form
: The six armed form of Chakresvari dates back to the earlier period. The figure is carved on the facade of the Temple No. 12. She is seen standing in the samabhanga and holding a disc in each of her four arms. She is flanked on her left side by an attendant with the flywhisk; while on the right side the figure of her gauda mount can be seen. A small image of Rishabh Dev can be seen over her head. Four other four armed figures of Padmavati are sculptured on the door lintels of the Temple Nos. 5, 9, 11 and 12. All the images expect the one in Temple No. 12 belongs to the 11th century A.D. The image in Temple No. 12 is of the 10th century. In all the figures the image is seen bearing abhaya mudra
, a mace, a disc and a conch. Besides these there are seven other figures found on the pillars adjacent to the Temple Nos. 1, 4, 12 and 26. All these are assignable to the 11th-12th century A.D.
The Six Armed Form
: The six armed form of Chakresvari has been represented in two forms. These belong to the 11th century A.D. The first figure is portrayed on the southern enclosure wall of the Temple No. 12. Here the Yakshi rides over a garuda and bears the varada mudra, a sword, a disc, a mace and a conch. The other figure has been carved on the throne of Rishabhnath image in the Temple No. 4. Here the Yakshi holds the varada mudra, a mace, a disc, and a conch.
The Eight Armed Form
: The eight armed Chakresvari is represented by three sculptures. The first figure belongs to the 11th century A.D. It has been carved on a pillar of Temple No. 1. She holds a Varada Mudra, a mace, an arrow, a ring, a ring, a vajra, a bow and a conch. The other two figures belong to the 12th century A.D. and are portrayed respectively on the pillars near to Temple No. 12 and 14. In both the sculptures she is in standing posture with her vehicle garuda carved nearby.
The Ten Armed Form
: The ten armed Chakresvari is represented by one sculpture. It is carved on a pillar adjacent to the Temple No. 11. The Yakshi with kirita mukuta, rides over garuda and holds varada mudra, an arrow, a mace, a sword, a disc, a disc, a shield, a thunderbolt, a bow and a conch.
The Twenty Armed Variety
: The twenty-armed Chakresvari is represented by three sculptures. These belong to the 11th century A. D. In all the images she rides over a garuda. Two of the images are preserved in the Sahu Jaina Museum, and the remaining one can be seen in Temple No. 2.
It can thus be concluded that Chakresvari at Deogarh
has been given due importance and has a rich variety of form.