The earliest settlement at the site is believed to have begun around 2,300 BC. Attracted by the fertile soil and availability of water, people from Sind and Baluchistan started moving and following the path of Sutlej River or Ghaggar River settled at Rohira. Further, Mahabharata contains profuse and useful information on various aspects of the political and socio-culture life of the land. The area of present Sangrur District along with adjoining areas came under the Maurya Dynasty in 322 BC. This area was also under the rule of Gupta administration.
According to the medieval period of the history of Sangrur District, during the last quarter of 10th century, Raja Jaipal ruled over Punjab including the present area of Sangrur District. His capital was at Bathinda close to the district. Sunam was an important province during the Sultanate period. Sher Khan was in charge of the governorship of Sunam. During his reign, Mangols invaded the country in 1292, reached Sunam, but were defeated. Ala-ud-din Khilji was the most famous Sultan of this dynasty who enforced very strong administration. During the times of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, a rebellion took place in Sunam and the adjoining areas. The root cause of the rebellion was the refusal of the peasants to pay the land tax.
During the Sultanate period, Sunam had strategic position and it was on the main route to Delhi. Under the Mughals, Punjab formed important province of their empire with successive governors as heads of administration. Sunam and Sirhind were the important provinces during the Mughal rule and the most of the area of the modern Sangrur District were under them. After the death of Aurangzeb, Mughal Empire became weaker throughout India. By this time, Sikhism had become a militant power in Punjab.
Banda Singh Bahadur, disciple of the Guru Gobind Singh shook the very foundation of Mughal Empire in Punjab. The Sikhs from Doab and Majha came in large numbers under the banner of Banda Bahadur, to take revenge on Wazir Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind who was mainly responsible for the endless sufferings to the Guru Gobind Singh and his sons. During the Fourth and Fifth Afghan invasion, the Sikhs were able to plunder the retreating Afghan forces and were able mostly to relieve them of their spoils. Since the present Sangrur District contains areas of erstwhile Phulkian states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind, and Mohammedan State of Malerkotla, its history is linked with the history of the above States. However, its main link is with the Phulkian States. Sangrur proper was once the headquarters of the Phulkian State of Jind.
British period of history of Sangrur District states that the active British influence in the erstwhile state of Jind was visible during the rule of Raja Bhag Singh. He along with other Phulkian Sardars approached the British Government for seeking protection against the rising power of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. After the death of Raja Bhag Singh in 1819, Fateh Singh became the next ruler of Jind State. His reign was very short and quite uneventful. The installation of Sangat Singh took place on 30 July 1822, at Jind in the presence of all the Phulkian chiefs.
The mismanagement of Jind continued to increase. Raja deserted his capital altogether. Further, the detention of British subjects in confinement without just cause by the Jind authorities was in 1834, reported to Government by the Governor General's agent. The Raja was reprimanded by the British for his lapses. After the death of Raja Sangat Singh there were many claimants to his throne. Raja Sarup Singh was formally installed in the presence of all the Phulkian Chiefs and the British Agent in April 1837. However, he was deprived of much of his territory, and Basia, Ludhiana and Morinda were taken away by the British. After the annexation of Punjab, the Raja of Jind was one of the few chiefs permitted to retain independent powers. In recognition of his service in recapturing Delhi for the British, the confiscated house of the rebel Shahzada Mirza Abu Bakr, situated in Delhi, was bestowed on the Raja (Sarup Singh).
In 1882, during Egyptian attack, the Raja of Jind offered to help the British with troops and ammunition but his offer was declined. Raja Ranbir Singh ruled the Jind State till independence in 1947.
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