The Catuh-Sampradayas are:
1. Shri Ramanuji of Sri Sampradaya subscribes to the philosophical principle of qualified dualism (Visistadvita).
2. Nimbarki (or Nimbaditya or Nimavat or Aruni) or Sanaka or Sanatana Sampradaya subscribing to the combined principle of duality and non-duality conforming to the monastic-pluralistic theory of vedanta.
3. Sri Madhava of Brahma Sampradaya provides a philosophical viewpoint which is dualism (Dvita).
4. Vishnuswami-Vallabhachari of Rudra Sampradaya subscribing to the principle of rigid and pure monism (sudhadvita).
Sri Sampradaya was the first and the oldest of the Vaishnava asceticism which is post-Dasnami or Sankara School of Ascetics. The Sampradaya was founded by the Vaishnava reformer Ramanuja Acharya.
The chief religious tenet of the Sri Sampradaya is qualified dualism. Its assertion is that Vishnu is Brahma and the worship is addressed to Lord Vishnu and to Goddess Lakshmi and their respective incarnations. The monasteries of this sect are decorated with salagram stones and tulsi plants. There are many monasteries belonging to Sri Sampradaya of qualified dualism.
One of the Catuh-Sampradaya Vaishnava sections is what is called Nimbaditya which is known in different ways as Nimavat or Aruni or Nimbarka. The philosophical school of this sect is based on the combined principle of duality and non-duality which makes it different from Ramanuji-Ramanandi sect whose philosophical principles are based on qualified dualism, and from Vishnuswami-Vallabhacharis who follow the principle of pure monism; and from Madhvaites for whom the dualistic-viewpoint forms their main philosophical principle.
Nimavats put on white garments as other Vaishnava sadhus do. But they are distinguished from other Vaishnava sects by their tilak-mstrk which comprises a circular black dot marked in the centre of double vertical streak of white-earth or Gopichandan. Their necklace consists of two strands of tulsi beads used close to the neck. According to the Nimbarkis one strand stands for Lord Krishna and the other for Goddess Radha as both the deities are conjointly worshipped as their tutelary deity. The saints of this sect bear such terms for surname as Dasa or Sarana.
Madhvacarya was born in 1197 AD and died in 1276 AD He was a Tulu Brahmin. After he was initiated into sanyasa by Purusottam Tirtha Madhva he came to be known as Ananda Tirtha. His philosophical doctrine is based on the Sankhya system which is known as dualism and his sect is known as Rudra Sampradaya. The tutelary deity worshipped by the followers of Rudra Sampradaya is Laxmi -Narayana. The female consort is treated as a female deity and not so much as a consort of Narayana. The Sidhabrahmacari matha located in Puri represents the Madhvacarya's Rudra Sampradaya.
Vishnuswami ascetics resemble the Nimbarkis. Vishnuswami Vallabhacari ascetics are rigid monists and admit disciples exclusively of Brahmin caste. There are a few mathas of pure monism of Rudra Sampradaya. The Jagannath Ballava Matha belongs to Vishnuswami and Mahaprabhuji ke Baithaka Matha to Vallavakula. Formerly there were a few more Mathas of Vishnuswami Akhadas and Sripuri Goswami Matha and Sri Kottabhoga Matha.
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