The first Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 and 2 subsequent Five-year plans were formulated till 1965, when there was a break because of the Indo-Pakistan Conflict. Two successive years of drought, devaluation of the currency, a general rise in prices and erosion of resources disrupted the planning process and after 3 Annual Plans between 1966 and 1969, the 4th Five-year plan was started in 1969. The 8th Plan could not take off in 1990 due to the fast changing political situation at the Centre and the years 1990-91 and 1991-92 were treated as Annual Plans. The 8th Plan was finally launched in 1992 after the initiation of structural adjustment policies.
For the first 8 Plans, the emphasis was on a growing public sector with massive investments in basic and heavy industries, but since the launch of the 9th Plan in 1997, the emphasis on the public sector has become less pronounced and the current thinking on planning in the country, in general, is that it should increasingly be of an indicative nature.
Organisation of the Planning Commission of India
The Prime Minister is the Chairman of the Planning Commission, which works under the overall guidance of the National Development Council. The Deputy Chairman and the full time Members of the Commission, as a composite body, provide advice and guidance to the subject Divisions for the formulation of Five Year Plans, Annual Plans, State Plans, Monitoring Plan Programmes, Projects and Schemes.
Functions of the Planning Commission of India
The 1950 resolution setting up the Planning Commission outlined its functions as to:
* Make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel, and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such of these resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nation's requirement;
* Formulate a Plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of country's resources;
* On a determination of priorities, define the stages in which the Plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage;
* Indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development, and determine the conditions which, in view of the current social and political situation, should be established for the successful execution of the Plan;
* Determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the Plan in all its aspects;
* Appraise, from time to time, the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the Plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary; and
* Make such interim or ancillary recommendations as appear to take it to be appropriate either for facilitating the discharge of the duties assigned to it, or on a consideration of prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures and development programme or on an examination of such specific problems as may be referred to it for advice by Central or State Governments.
Evolving Functions of the Planning Commission of India
From a highly centralised planning system, the Indian economy is gradually moving towards indicative planning where Planning Commission concerns itself with the building of a long term strategic vision of the future and decides on national priorities. It works out sectoral targets and provides promotional stimulus to the economy to grow in the desired direction. Planning Commission of India plays an integrative role in the development of a holistic approach to policy formulation in critical areas of human and economic development. In the social sector, schemes which require coordination and synthesis like rural health, drinking water, rural energy needs, literacy and environment protection have yet to be subjected to coordinated policy formulation. It has led to multiplicity of agencies. An integrated approach can lead to better results at much lower costs. The emphasis of the Commission is on maximising the output by using our limited resources optimally. Instead of looking for mere increase in the plan outlays, the effort is to look for increases in the efficiency of utilisation of the allocations being made.
With the emergence of severe constraints on available budgetary resources, the resource allocation system between the States and Ministries of the Central Government is under strain. This requires the Planning Commission to play a mediatory and facilitating role, keeping in view the best interests of all concerned. It has to ensure smooth management of the change and help in creating a culture of high productivity and efficiency in the Government. The key to efficient utilisation of resources lies in the creation of appropriate self-managed organisations at all levels.
In this area, Planning Commission attempts to play a systems change role and provide consultancy within the Government for developing better systems. In order to spread the gains of experience more widely, Planning Commission also plays an information dissemination role.