Raja Wodeyar (1578 - 1617) replaced Tirumala Raja in Srirangapatnam and went on to make it his capital. He extended his possessions south of the present Mysore and Mandya districts and also captured several places towards the north from Jagadeva Raya of Channaptna. Hyder Ali slowly gained control over the administration of the district, and went on to establish himself as the de facto ruler of the land. He even managed to extend the territories further.
Tipu Sultan succeeded his father Hyder Ali in 1782. He was an enlightened ruler who strove hard to make Mysore a prosperous state, was perhaps the most formidable enemy of the British East India Company had to contend with in its struggle against the Indian Princely powers. Tipu's thorough reorganisation of the armed forces, his establishment of a board of admiralty, issue of new coinage, prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors, his reform of the calendar, introduction of new scales of weights and measures, his amazing experiments in commerce, his novel revenue and judicial regulations etc exhibit his unusually great creative ability and his flair for modernisation.
Tipu Sultan played an active role in the 1st and 2nd Mysore wars. He showed great political skill in working out the Mangalore Treaty with the British in 1784, which gave the British nothing. After the second Mysore War, Tipu had to engage in an armed conflict with the Marathas and the Nizam during 1786-87. Tipu proved superior and the war concluded with the treaty of Gajendragad. At that time, Tipu pleaded in vain with the Marathas and the Nizam that they should all ally against the British. As they were unwilling, he was forced to take outside help from France, Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan. Apart from securing their political and military aid, he also wanted to establish commercial ties with these foreign powers.
In 1790, Tipu had a conflict with the Raja of Travancore since the latter had built defensive walls in disputed areas. The British, who were allies of the Raja, found a convenient excuse to pitch tents in Mysore that Tipu had attacked their ally. The English defeated Tipu who had to send his two little sons, as hostages besides handing over a large piece of his territory. Tipu had made special efforts to seek help from Napoleon, who wrote back offering his support but the British surveillance intercepted the letter and it did not reach Tipu. Finally Tipu was defeated and killed on account of treachery from among his own sub-ordinates.
After the death of Tipu, His Highness Sri Krishnaraja Wodeyar III was placed on the throne of Mysore on the 30th June 1799, at this time a five year old boy. From that time onwards Mysore became the capital of the rulers. Srirangapatna became the property of the British East India Company and British troops were kept in the fort. In 1831, the British took over the administration of the Mysore territory from Krishnaraja Wodeyar III for alleged misgovernment. Two officers styled Senior Commissioner and Junior Commissioner were appointed to govern the territory of the Raja. This arrangement continued from 1831 to 1834. In April 1834, the post of the Junior Commissioner was abolished and the Government of the Mysore territory was put in charge of only one Commissioner. The commissioner's rule of Mysore State continued for fifty years from 1831 to 1881 in which year the Mysore territory was handed back to the Mysore Wodeyars. Krishnaraja Wodeyar III had died in 1868. His adopted son Sri Chamarajendra Wodeyar, was recognized as his heir to the throne by the British Government and he succeeded to the Musnad of Mysore in 1881, when the State was handed back to him by the British Government in India, as a result of the persistent efforts of his predecessor and his people for restoration of the ruling powers to the Mysore royal family.
Maharaja Chamaraja Wodeyar ruled the State from 1881 to 1894. He was enlightened ruler and during his regime, the resources of the State were greatly developed. At this time Sri Krishanaraja Wodeyar IV, the heir-apparent, was only 10 years old and as such Maharani Kempananjammanni was appointed as the Regent. She held the position upto August 1902, when Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV was invested with full ruling powers. He ruled for 38 years and earned for himself the name of "Creator of Modern Mysore" by his benevolent and efficient administration. He strove hard to promote the moral and material welfare of the people and granted them a share in the administration of the State. He died in August 1940 and was succeeded by Sri Jayachamraja Wodeyar, who granted responsible Government to the people and became a constitutional ruler in October 1947, and later became its Rajpramukh and also the Governor, in keeping with the democratic structure of the country.