(Last Updated on : 18-02-2010)
Shimoga district is situated almost centrally in the state of Karnataka. Bounded by the Sahyadri ghats, the Shimoga district is surrounded by the Haveri district
in the North, the Davanagere district
in the East, Udupi
in the West and Chikmagalur district
in the South. It lies between 13 degrees 27 minutes and 14 degrees and 39 minutes North latitude and between 74 degrees 37 minutes and 75 degrees 52 minutes East longitudes at a mean elevation of 640 metres above Mean Sea Level. The district is divided into two divisions and 7 taluks. The Sagar Sub-Division covers the Sagar, Sorab, Shikaripur and Hosanagar Taluks, whereas the Shimoga Sub-Division covers the Shimoga, Bhadravathi and Thirthahalli Talukas. The district is spread over an area of 8477 Sq.Kms with a forest area of 2.27 lakhs hectares. It measures 152.9 Kms from East to West and 128.8 kilometres from North to South. It ranks 9th in size among all the districts of the State.
The Shimoga district is the origin of the Kali River
, the Gangavathi, Sharavathi and Tadadi. The other major rivers which flow through the district are the Tunga River
, Bhadra River
and Varada. The rivers Tunga and Bhadra meets at a place called Koodalgi in Shimoga district. Agumbe, a small place, known for its highest rainfall (8000 mm per annum) in southern India is part of the Shimoga district.
The eastern part of district comes under the semi-malnad zone with plain topography and occasional chains of hills covered with semi-deciduous vegetation. Shimoga district is rich in flora and fauna. The dense forests and green shrub jungles are the main producers of sandalwood, rosewood, teak and other exotic timber. Other important trees found here are mango, jackfruit, tamarind etc. The dense forests and thick undergrowths are home to many wild animals like elephant
, tiger, lion, leopard
, wild boar
, antelope, porcupine
and monkeys and many other animals. Migratory birds from all over the world are found at Shimoga.
Of the total area of the district, 214.23 hectares is the net sown area. The Sahyadri Ranges, part of the Western Ghats mountain range
, feeds the rivers round the year and inundates the fertile alluvial soil. The main crops grown in the Shimoga district are paddy, coconut, ragi, pepper, areca and sugarcane
. Others include maize
, fruits, cotton
, cashew nut, chillies and ginger
. The net irrigated area is127.70 hectares. The Sharavathi Hydel Project and Varahi Project provide a substantial portion of the state's power needs. Among the major minerals found here are Limestone, White Quartz, Manganese
, Kaolin and Kainite.