1. Kayachikitsa or Internal Medicine
2. Shalya Tantra or Surgery
3. Shalakya Tantra or ENT and Opthalmology
4. Kaumara Bhritya or Paediatrics
5. Agad Tantra or Toxicology
6. Bhutavidya or Psychiatry
7. Rasayana or Geriatrics
8. Vajikarana or Eugenics and Aphrodisiacs
Kayachikitsa or Internal Medicinal Treatment: This methodology corresponds to the general medicine therapy which is required to treat chronic diseases, namely tuberculosis, asthma or general health ailments like, fever or even mania. It covers specialities like pathology, cardiology or neurology also.
Shalya Tantra: It deals with treatment of diseases caused by foreign bodies and diseases that need surgical therapies. It is carried out only for diseases, which cannot be cured by medicines. In Sushruta’s version of Shalya Tantra surgery was done with Yantra (blunt surgical instruments), Shastra (sharp tools), Kshara (bio-chemical substances), Agni (cauterization by blood-coagulation and tissue-destruction) for removing harmful foreign bodies.
Shalakya Tantra: This Ayurvedic subdivision of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) and Opthalmology (Eye) handles all problems of the ear, nose, throat, tongue and eyes. Sushruta has described about 72 diseases of the eye. His unique way of conducting surgery in cataracts and other eyes, nose and ear dysfunctions, amazes the modern medical science of the posterity.
Kaumarabhrutya or Paediatrics: This is the Ayurvedic section of Paediatrics which deals with nourishment, support and maintenance of child and cures child diseases.
Agada Tantra: This is the Ayurvedic equivalent of Toxicology. Sushruta stated that this detoxification or anti-poison therapy saves life from the fatal venom of snakes, insects, etc. and even from food-poisoning, water-pollution or epidemics.
Bhutavidya or Psychiatry: When the mind is diseased, this Ayurvedic science of spiritual rejuvenation heals the mental wreck. It is also the tool of dealing with psychosomatic disorders.
Rasayana Tantra: Longer and immune youthful life of the body and the spirit by deferring old age and increasing the potency of the life-force (Ojas) is the goal of Geriatrics. It is the maintenance and the regeneration of body tissues (Dhatus). Rasayana is prepared from the medicinal herbs like haritaki, amla, triphala, bhringaraj, ashwagandha, etc. to sustain perpetual vigour.
Vajikarana Tantra: The vital function of multiplication and reproduction of healthy life (birth of progeny) is taken care of by Vajikarana Tantra. This is the Ayurvedic process of creating a stallion in a man, in terms of his sexual capacity and fertility. Deficiencies like infertility both in male and female, weak Shukra Dhatus or reproductive fluids in the body fall under the scope of its treatment.