The district's important segment of economy is constitutes mainly of agriculture which is the biggest source of employment. Of the geographical 235319 hectares, crops are grown in 210438 hectares. Coconut is the principal crop followed by rubber, paddy, and tapioca. Pokkali, which is a paddy cultivation system, is peculiar to the District. Under this system only one crop can be taken in a year. After harvesting suitable varieties of fishes and prawns are grown in the fields, which is more profitable. Activities allied to agriculture such as dairy, poultry and fishery play an important role in the economy of the district. Among the total cultivated area 29.40% is irrigated in the district.
Ernakulam district is the most developed district in Kerala, bestowed with all the geographical factors that help the development of industry. So it can be said that it is in the forefront of all other Districts in Kerala in the field of industry. One of the unique features of Kerala is the availability of all types of transport facilities, which can be named as road, rail, canal, sea, air, etc.
Some of the major industrial firms in the district are named as Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore, Indian Rare Earths, Hindustan Machine Tools, Appollo Tyres, Hindustan Insecticides, Forest Industries of Travancore, Travancore Cochin Chemicals, Cominco Binani Zinc, Cochin Shipyard, Cochin Refineries, etc. The industrial growth in the district accelerates mainly by the availability of electricity, fresh water, fairly long coastline, good banking facility, proximity to Kochi Port, or International airport at Nedumbassery. In addition to this processing zone is situated at Kakkanad. The Brahmapuram Diesel plant and Pathalam Naphtha plant are present in the District because of this the district consume major share of electricity. There are 29037 small-scale industrial units that are functioning in this district.