(Last Updated on : 15/10/2011)
Growth of Education in Bihar was looked after by Adam who was appointed by Lord William Bentinck
. According to Adam, Bengal and Bihar
with a population of four crores had one lac such schools. The system of Village School was prevalent. Teachers were recruited from all classes and according to Adam parents of good caste had no objection to send their children to schools run by the teachers of an inferior caste and even of a different religion. The Mussalman teacher had Hindus of good castes among his scholars and this was equally true of the Chandals and other lower castes. The higher classes had the predominance; elementary education was not their sole monopoly. Such associations of Hindus of all status and Muslims led to the fusion of thoughts and culture. The social relationship was marked with toleration and harmony. This was an important element in society. Female education was not so popular. Only a section of the female population was educated upto the modest requirements of family and society. The women kept the daily accounts of their households and they had the rudimentary knowledge of writing. In the aristocratic families the girls were educated with a view to providing them with such knowledge as would enable them to look after the state affairs.
The year 1835 marked a turning point in the history of Indian education. In a Minute issued on February 22, 1835, Lord Macaulay denounced the Oriental literature and education and advocated the introduction of western system of education. This influenced the Government of Lord Bentinck and he passed the famous Resolution of the 7th March, 1835, declaring that "the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science amongst the natives of India."
Bentinck's resolution was later modified by Lord Auckland who granted Rupees Five hundred a month to the Royal Asiatic Society for the publication of Oriental books and series, thus published, came to known as Biboliotheca India. The Wood's Despatch of 1854 supplied the basis of the present system of education. It prescribed the following methods: (a) the Constitution of a separate department of education, (b) Institution of Universities in Presidency towns, (c) Institution for the training of teachers, (d) Maintenance of Government Colleges and Schools, (e) increased attention to Vernacular Schools and (f) establishment of new Middle Schools etc. A Director of Public Instruction was appointed for each province. Universities were started in the Presidencies. In 1866 Patna College was started. In 1882 Lord Ripon
appointed Hunters' Commission to suggest improvement in the system. After 1882 the Municipalities and other local bodies were entrusted with the task of educating the people. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Colleges were started in Bhagalpur
, Monghyr, and Hazaribagh
. In 1902 Lord Curzon
appointed Universities' Commission to suggest improvements and to recommend such measures as to elevate the standard of the University. Indian Universities Act
of 1904 tightened the Government's hold on the Universities. In 1910, the Department of Education was created. In 1917 the Patna
University was started. The Saddler Commission
Report of 1919 recommended that the defects of the present system might be mitigated by the establishment of a strong Central teaching body and by a modification of the University administrative machinery. In 1924, the Inter-University Board was established.
Universities in Bihar
For the reform of University education, in Bihar Shaha Committee was appointed. During the thirties and the forties of our century there has been a marked development in the growth of education in our province. During the regime of Dr. Sachhidanand Sinha as the Vice-chancellor of the Patna University, various colleges were started in different parts of the province, such as, Darbhanga
, and Madhubani
. During the Vice-Chancellorship of Sir C. P. N. Sinha, Patna University made all round progress. He brought a new life in the University education by starting certain teaching departments directly under the University. Psychological Research Institute, Department of Labour and Social Welfare, Music, Geology, Politics Diploma in International Affairs, Diploma in Public administration and the Department of Ancient India History and Culture are the important teaching departments of the Patna University.
With the coming of the Congress into power, Bihar has become the centre of Basic education, which is based upon the "Nai Talim" system of Mahatma Gandhi
. Various Basic Institutions have been started in different parts of the province. In the field of female education a new leaf has been turned. There are two women's Colleges at Patna, one at Bhagalpur
, one at Ranchi
and one at Muzaffarpur
and a new one has been started at Chapra. As compared with the previous century, there has been marked develop merit in the field of female education in our century In order to encourage it the Government has decided to provincialise all Girl Schools in the Sub-divisional headquarters. Encouragement has been given to the growth of Sanskrit, Pali Prakrit Studies. Sanskrit Colleges have been started. The Nalanda
Institute of Post-graduate Studies and Research in Pali and Buddhism
has restored Nalanda to its pristine glory. The Mithila Institute of Post-graduate studies and Research at Darbhanga, started through the generous gift of the Maharajadhiraj of Darbhanga, has also attracted students from every nook and corner of India. A similar institute for Prakrit research has been started at Vaishali. The Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute at Patna has been established to make studies and research in the history and culture of Bihar.