History of Patiala District describes that Patiala is relatively a young city, a few years more than two centuries old. The early history of the founders of Patiala is more of a myth mystery than reality. The rulers of the erstwhile states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to Chaudhary Phul. Apparently the appellation of dynasty Phulkian is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chaudhary Ram Singh was baptised and blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. His son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 AD when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce struggle against the Mughals.
History of Patiala District further states that under Ala Singh Patiala expanded into a big state touching the Shivalik Hills
in north, Rajasthan
in the south and upper courses of Yamuna River
and Sutlej River
. While confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances in the mid 18th century, Baba Ala Singh displayed tremendous courage in dealing with the Mughals, Afghans and Marathas, and successfully established and maintained a state. In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala is built.
After the Third Battle of Panipat
in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab. It is at this stage that the rulers of Patiala began to acquire ensigns of royalty. Grandson of Ahmad Shah Abdali succeeded and received the title of Raja-i-Rajgan. In 1808, Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against, thus becoming collaborator in the grand empire building process by the British in the sub-continent of India. The rulers of Patiala like Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh were treated with respect and dignity by the British rulers. According to the history of Patiala District, it was Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (1900-1930) who gave Patiala state a prominent place in the political map of India and, in the field of international sports. Most of the buildings with splendid architectural designs were constructed during his reign. In recognition of his services, he was appointed the Rajpramukh of the newly established state of PEPSU.
Though historians have tried to trace the origin of Patiala to Rig Vedic literature yet the town as it stands today was founded by Ala Singh with the construction of the Qila Mubarak in the year 1763.