(Last Updated on : 04/05/2013)
The subordinate courts, at the level of districts and lower, have almost similar structure all over the country. They deal with civil and criminal cases in accordance with their respective jurisdictions and administer the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Criminal Procedure. Each State is divided into judicial districts. The subordinate judiciary in each district is headed by a District and Sessions Judge. The usual designations on the civil side are District Judge, Additional District Judge, and Civil Judge. On the criminal side, we have Sessions Judge, Additional Sessions Judge, Chief Judicial Magistrate, Judicial Magistrate etc. The Governor in consultation with the High Court appoints the district judges. A person who is not already in Government Service should have at least seven years' experience at the bar to become eligible for the position of a district judge (article 233).
Appointment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor in accordance with rules made there under. Besides the State Public Service Commission, the High Court has to be consulted in the matter of such appointments (article 234).
The administrative control of the High Court over the district courts and other lower courts is full inasmuch as postings, promotions and grant of leave etc. to any person belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of a judge is vested in the High Court.
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