(Last Updated on : 03/08/2010)
The picturesque city of Jaipur is ennobled by its history. Tracing down the findings of experts it can be said that the history of Jaipur begins from the day of its foundation. In the year 1727, Maharaja Jai Singh laid the foundation of this Jaipur city. After Jai Singh the city was named as Jaipur. He was a Kachhwaha Rajput, who reigned from the years 1699 to 1744. In the beginning Amber, which is situated at a distance of almost eleven kms from Jaipur, was his capital. The rapid growth of population multiplied with water scarcity problem, which forced the ruler to shift his capital to Jaipur. In fact the ruler became very enthusiastic at the time of designing this city. After consulting lots of books on architecture he began the work of building the layouts of this city.
Being the first planned Indian city the history of Jaipur also has caught so much of attention of historians. After confronting several blows of Maratha rulers, Jai Singh took the initiative to make the city more and more secured. That is why he relied on his own technical and artistic knowledge. Jai Singh himself was a lover of mathematics and scientific theories and he also consulted Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. He was a Brahmin academician from Bengal who had helped the ruler to design the architecture of Jaipur city.
Vidyadhar too cited the primeval literature on Indian astronomy, scripts of Ptolemy and Euclid, and talked about the plan with the ruler.
On the basis of this planning, he began building the city in the year 1727. Main palaces, roads and square are completed in the time span of four years. . For constructing this Jaipur city Shilpa Shastra principles of Indian architecture were followed. In fact Jaipur was separated into 9 blocks. Out of it, 2 blocks consist of the state buildings and palaces. For common people the rest of seven blocks are being selected. Strong walls of buttressing and also 7 tough gates were created for ensuring safety and defense. This architectural treasure has been acknowledged to be the best if the whole of the Indian Territory.
The history of Jaipur is also enriched by the lineage of kings who have succeeded Jai Singh. At a young age of fourteen years Sawai Pratap Singh became the Maharaja. His year of reign was 1778 - 1803. During his reign of twenty-five years Jaipur city had undergone both progress and failures at the same time. Main threats were Maratha and Mughal rulers for whom he had to face recurring fear and a grave drainage of funds.
Hava Mahal His devotion to Lord Krishna made him quite famous. He was a patron of arts and craftsmen and also his poetic zeal. Hava Mahal, better known as the palace of the Winds is a unique monument that has been built by him. He wrote under the pseudonym of Brijnidhi , composing poems and songs.
The name of Sawai Ram Singh II also has found its place in the history of Jaipur. He was quite dissimilar from other rules in all respects. He dominated from 1835 to 1880. He ardently follows the rituals of Vaishaivism.
Ram Singh II was a benevolent king who had taken the initiative of reforming various ill practices of the then kingdom. For example during his ruling, slavery, child infanticide was abolished. Also during his reign Sati ritual was legally banned from Jaipur. The year was 1839. He also was a music lover and played Veena, a `multi-stringed instrument`. Close association with the British rulers has enabled them to beautify the city with gaslights, water works. Broad roads, Sanskrit collages, Maharaja School of Arts and Crafts, the medical college also are built during this time. Ram Singh died heirless With the death of Ram Singh II his adopted son Madao Singh II ascended the throne in the year 1880.. However he took the onus of bringing progress in the city of Jaipur. It is connected with commercial zones. Universities, Hospitals, the Secretariat, residential colonies and colleges were constructed.
Madho Singh also adopted his nephew named Kanwar Mormukat Singh. He was the younger son of `Thakur Sowai Singh of Isarda`. Kanwar Mormukat Singh became popular as Sawai Man Singh II. Sawai Man Singh II established his domination from 1922 to 1949.
In the post independence era initiatives were taken to transform the position of princely states of India. Thus Jaipur was merged with other Rajput states like Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Bikaner and thus Greater Rajasthan was formed. In the year 1956, Jaipur has been bestowed upon with the status of capital of Rajasthan state. Till today Jaipur has retained its charm and spectacle by preserving the remnants of its regal heritage.
In the 19th century Jaipur grew rapidly and became prosperous; by 1900 the city has grown to a population of 160,000. The city`s wide avenues were paved and lightened everywhere. The city had several hospitals. The chief industries of Jaipur were in metals and marble, promoted by a school of art established in 1868. Jaipur also has three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls` school (1867) built under the reign of the generous Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and inventive community of local bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris.
Jaipur is an elegant capital city of the princely state Rajasthan and the royal essence still prevails. The regal dynasties, victorious kings, their palaces, gardens and statues adorn the city and have made Jaipur one of the most promising tourist spots in the nation. Belonging to the Kachwaha
clan of Rajputs
, Maharajas of Jaipur claim descent from Rama
, the king of Ayodhya
Full of zest, Jaipur city is a bustling and vibrant and one of the major tourist destinations of India. Its rich culture and glorious past also serves as one of the best seats of research and study in the country. Jaipur is still maintained as one of the beautiful cities in India with most of its forts and palaces perfectly in shape and well maintained. Jaipur has a number of fine hotels that provide best hospitality service to guests touring Jaipur.