The state of Uttar Pradesh is endowed with natural wealth in abundance. There is a wide diversity of flora and fauna in the state. The flora of the region includes almost all kinds of plants and it can be said that around 12.8 percent geographical area of the state is covered with forests. As far as fauna of the state is concerned it includes animals living on land, water and air. Rather it is better said that Uttar Pradesh has a diversity of fauna.
The types of forest that are most common in the state are Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests. They are found in the moist regions of Terai. The Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests are found in all parts of the plains and is more common in the central eastern and western regions. The Tropical Thorny Forest is found in the south-western parts of the State. Some of the most common plants that are found in the state of Uttar Pradesh
are rhododendrons, betula, silver fir, spruce, deodar, chir, oak, sal, gigantic haldu, dhak, teak, mahua, salai, sisso, chironji and tendu. There are also a number of medicinal herbs like Rauwolfia Sarpagandha
, Viala serpens, Podophyllum
, hexandrum and aephecra gerardiana are grown here. Various types of woody plants, shrubs and climbers are also found in the region.
The raw materials of these plants are very often used in various industries for instance babul provides the principal tanning material of the state, baib and Bamboo
, most of the time serve as raw materials for the paper industry. Semal and gutel are used in the matchwood industry and Kanju is useful in the plywood industry. The abundant greenery in the state not only adds to the beauty of the state but at the same time provides a lot of raw materials for many industries of the state.
Uttar Pradesh has a wealth of animal life. Especially aviafauna of the state is richest in the country. The most common birds which are found in the state are crow, pigeon, dove, jungle fowl, black partridge, house sparrow, peafowl, blue jay, parakeet, kite, myna, quail, bulbul, snipe, comb duck, grey duck, whistling teal, kingfisher and woodpecker.
The animals which are found in the dense jungles of Uttar Pradesh are tiger, leopard
, wild bear, sloth bear, elephant, gond, para, chinkara
, sand grouse, musk deer, brown bear, chital, sambhar, jackal, porcupine, jungle cat, hare, squirrel, monitor, lizard and fox.
The reptiles that are found in the region are Bamania, Lizard, Cobra, Krait, Crocodile, Pit-viper, Goh, Tortoise and Dhaman. Among the wide variety of fishes that are found in the region the most common ones are Mahaser, Saul, Parthan, Vittal, Mirgal, Labi, Cuchia, Einghi, Trout, Hilsa, Tengan, Rasela, Rohu, Kata, Mangur, Eel and Mirror Carp.
Some of the animal species in Uttar Pradesh have become extinct in the recent years. For example animals like the lions from the Gangetic plain and rhinoceros from the terai region have become endangered. Many of the animals like black buck, musk deer, swamp deer, four horned antelope and mural pheasants are on their way of extinction. Some of the animals in the state are invariably subject to poaching in spite of strong orders from the government.
The flora and fauna of the state is a precious wealth of the state and so in order to preserve its wildlife the Corbett National Park
and 12 game sanctuaries have been established.