Classification of Disease in Ayurveda
Classification of Vyadhi is done after taking many aspects into consideration, such as characteristics, causative factors, numbers, Dosha involvement, etc.
Classification of Disease in Ayurveda is done in various ways. The classifications follow the categories set up in the early Ayurvedic classic texts of Charaka and Sushruta, and expanded in the later works. One of the methods of classification of disease in Ayurveda is on the basis of the causative factors which are of three types namely;
Adhyatmika Diseases: It has their source within the body and may be further divided into hereditary diseases, congenital disease and diseases caused by one or more of the doshas or body tissues.
Adhibhautika Diseases: It has their source outside the body and incorporates such things as injuries from accidents or mishaps, invasions by germs, viruses and bacteria.
Adhidaivika Diseases: These are believed to spring from supernatural sources. It includes ailments cropping up from providential causes, planetary influences, curses and seasonal changes.
A more practical classification of disease convenient for treatment classifies the diseases into seven categories.
Aadi-bala refers to those diseases that are transmitted through genes.
Janma-bala refers to those diseases that are present in the body from birth.
Dosha-bala incorporates those diseases that affect the body when the body is suffering from an imbalance of the Tridoshas i.e.; Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
Sanghata-bala refers to those diseases which are caused by trauma, both physical and mental.
Kaala-bala refers to those diseases caused by seasonal changes.
Daiva-bala signifies those diseases which are caused by Gods or spirits.
Svabhaava-bala incorporates those diseases that are a part of the natural change of the body with the passage of time.
The classification of disease can also be done as Nija, Agantuja, Sharirik and Manasik. ‘Nija’ refers to endogenous diseases caused by disorder in the doshas. ‘Agantuja’ stands for exogenous diseases that are caused by external reasons like injuries. The diseases caused by physiological disturbances are called ‘Sharirik’ diseases and those, which are a result of psychological disturbances, are known as ‘Manasik’ diseases.
Ayurveda also gives the classification of disease according to their curative measures. Thus classified diseases can be Sukhasadhya, Kruchrasadhya, Yapya and Asadhya. Those diseases, which get cured very easily, are categorised under Sukhasadhya. Kruchrasadhya diseases take a lot of time to cure. Those diseases, which recur when the treatment is stopped, fall under the category of Yapya. Asadhya signifies those diseases that are incurable.
Thus, classification of disease is done in many ways in Ayurveda. Such an intensive classification system facilitates proper treatment of diseases.