The history of Samastipur district has close associations with that of old Darbhanga, its parent district. The district comprises the greater part of the ancient territory of Mithila. Its legendary history goes back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata periods. According to accounts in the Vedic literature, the Videhas of the Aryan stock first migrated to the area from the banks of Saraswati in Punjab. Legendary association of old Darbhanga district with the Pandavas is evidenced by the belief that they stayed in Pandaul village, now part of the Madhubani district, during their period of exile.
Samstipur district is spread over an area of 2904 sq. kms. It is bounded on the north by the Bagmati river, which separates it from Darbhanga district. On the west it is bordered by Vaishali and some part of Muzaffarpur districts, on the south by the Ganges, while on its east it has Begusarai and some part of Khagaria districts. The district headquarters is located at Samastipur city.
Agriculture is the principal economic activity of the district and nearly 83% of the total working population depends on it. Wheat, pulses and edible oil seeds are also grown here. Tobacco is processed and exported to distant places of the country. The district has also a rich endowment of fruits like mango, lichi and banana. These fruits in sizeable number are exported in sizeable quantity outside the State also. Artificial irrigation, although important, has played a comparatively minor part in the agricultural economy of the district. The district, like most other districts, is dependent on rainfall for its crops. This district along with other districts in the State depends absolutely on livestock for pursuing agriculture, which is the most important occupation. The district is also suitable for the rearing of milk cattle.
Many rivers flow through this district, which provide fish in abundance. There are also many tanks like Moen, Dom, etc., in which fish is reared. There are a good number of fisherman co-operative societies to cater to the needs of thousands of fisherman. The district of Samastipur has two sugar mills, a Jute mill, a paper factory, a re-rolling mill and many other small factories.
District Collector is the head of the Samastipur district. He is maintaining the law and order and peace in the district. The other government officers of the district level assist him.
By Air: The nearest airports to Samastipur are Jaiprakash Narayan International Airport, Patna and Gaya International Airport, Gaya.
By Rail: Samastipur Rail head is well connected to all its neighbouring cities.
By Road: Samastipur is well connected through roadways. National Highway No-28 crosses through Samastipur.
The district is at present comprises of 4 sub-divisions namely- Samastipur, Rosera, Dalsinghasarai, Patori and 14 Community Development Blocks namely- Kalyanpur, Warisnagar, Samastipur, Pusa, Tajpur, Morwa (Morwa), Patori, Mohiuddinagar, Sarairanjan, Ujiarpur, Dalsinghasarai, Dibhutpur, Rosera, Singhia and Hasanpur. It has 5 towns and 1237 villages.
As per 1991Census of India, the Samastipur has a population of 2.72 million. About 95.0% of the population lives in the rural arrears and 5.0% of the population lives in the urban areas respectively. Overall, there were 928 females per 1000 males. The District is lacking in its educational infrastructure and the Literacy rate is only 36.37 % and male average literacy rate is 50.39%, where as female literacy rate is 21.17%.
The main language of the district is Hindi and the main festival is Chhat Puja, which is celebrated after the festival of Diwali.Thaneshwar Temple is a very famous temple of Lord Shiva, and is situated at the heart of the city. Its a beautiful town located on the bank of river Gandank.
There are number of places situated in Samastipur .
Vidyapatinagar:The place, situated in Dalsinghsarai block near the bank of River Ganges, is named after the most revered Maithili poet Vidyapati. It is believed to be the place where the renowned Poet breathed his last in search of Lord Shiva. As the myth goes, Lord Shiva was associated with him since long in the guise of his servant named Ugna. It is said that he wanted to breath his last at the banks of Ganges and was travelling towards it. But due to his failing health, he was not able to reach the banks of Ganges and so the river changed its course to reach him. There is a big old temple of Lord Shiva known as Vidyapati Dham in commemoration of the same.
Malinagar:The village, situated about 35-kms southwest of Laheriasarai of Darbhanga district, contains an old Shiva temple that was built in 1844. A fair is held here every year on the evening of Ramnavami.
Mangalgarh:It is situated at a distance of 14-kms from Hasanpur block of Samastipur near Dudhpura. Dudhpura is the nick name of ancient Budhpura, which was named after Lord Buddha who happened to stay there and preached Buddhism for some time while going round the country. He stayed there at the request of King Mangaldeo. Remains of his fort have been discovered here.
Jageshwar Asthan:It is an old Shiva temple in Bibhutipur village situated about 15-kms from Narhan Railway station. There is also a magnificent old Building of Narhan Estate, which has been very prominent in this area since the Mughal period. One Jageshwari Devi, daughter of Bhaw Mishra, the Vaidya of Narhan Estate, as it is said, constructed the temple.
Musrigharari:It is situated at a distance of about 8km from Samastipur main town on NH28. This place is very famous for its Muharram and Durga Puja Celebration. More than 25000 gather together for the celebration of Muharram and Durga Puja.
Dalsinghsarai:Dalsingsarai is a sub-division in Samastipur district and connected with NH-28 & main railway(Barauni-Samastipur) line passing through town.
Bakhribuzurg:It is situated at a distance of about 500 meters from Musrighrari main market on NH28.
Education facilities in the district are at minimum, which includes some colleges like Samastipur College, BRB College, RNR College, womens college. There is no professional college in the district. But this district possess a very reputed Agricultural College in Pusa. Which is well known as Rajendra Agricultural University.