The Bhuiyas are divided into twelve septs namely Thakur, clan of royal blood; Saont, from samanta, viceroy; Kalo, a wizard or priest; Amata, counsellor; Padhan, a village headman; Naik, a military leader; Behra, manager of the household; Dehri, also a priest; Chatria, one who carried the royal umbrella; Sahu, a moneylender; and Dandsena, a police official. Bhuiya tribes are classified into a southern division, with Orissa as its centre, and a northern division, with Bihar as its centre. The southern division of Bhuiya tribe is comparatively backward than that of the northern division. These two main divisions of Bhuiya tribe consist of a number of sub-groups such as Hake, Dake, Katti, Dandsena, and Naksiya. Further, Rajwar, Rikhiasan, Musahar and Pawanhans are categorised on the basis of changing mythical origins.
In Bhuiya communities, marriages are usually adult. Parents arrange the prospective match for their children. Further, widow re-marriage and divorce are also permitted. A widow is expected to marry the younger brother of her late husband; however, it is not an obligation. They either or burn the dead. Culture of Bhuiya tribe represents various stages ranging from primitive Hilly culture to Hindu-influenced culture.