Thanjavur was the capital of the Mutharayars and Cholas between 1st to 12th centuries. After Cholas the Pandyas conquered the city and made Madurai as their capital and Thanjavur remained as province pf Vijayanagar Empire. Then it came in the hands of Nayakas till 17th century.
Later in 1674, Tanjore was conquered by the Marathas under Venkaji, the half brother of Shivaji the great.
The administration of Tanjavur was given over to British East India Company fully under the treaty of 1799. The raja Serfoji II retained only the capital and a small tract of surrounding country. When ruler died in 1841 without heir, the Thanjavur fort was also annexed by British and became the part of Madras. Till Indian independence Britishers ruled Thanjavur.
The city is located at 10.8°N 79.15°E. It has an average elevation of 2 meters. The city lies on the south bank of the Cauveri river. The climate of Thanjavur is Tropical. The maximum temperature is 36.6° C and minimum is 22° C. The annual rainfall of the city is 111.37mm. The city divided into two parts separated by a fly over. One side of the fly over the old town or called as the Downtown is situated which is also the main business centre of the city. On the other side of the flyover the residential areas are situated.
Most of the people in Thanjavur are farmers. Thanjavur is called the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu.Agriculture is the main activity of Thanjavur. Paddy, Sugarcane, Coconut, Plantain are the major crops.
The major industries of Thanjavur are: -
A District Collector belongs to an officer of Indian Administrative Service, is the head of Thanjavur. He looks after ball the day to day activities and Deputy Inspector General of police, an officer belongs to the Indian Police service is responsible for the law and order in the society The Superintendent of police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining law and order in Thanjavur.
By Air- The nearest airport to Thanjavur is Tiruchi. It is 65 km from Thanjavur. The next nearer airports are Madurai and Chennai.
By Rail- There is a railway junction in Thanjavur, which is well connected with Tiruchi, Chennai and Nagore.
By Road- Thanjavur is well connected with all the major towns in Tamil Nadu. It is also connected with cities like Kochi, Ernakulam and Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala and Bangalore in Karnataka.
As per 2001 census, Thanjavur has 215,725. Male constitute 50% and female constitute 50% of the total population of the city. 9% of the population is under six year of age. Thanjavur has an average literacy rate of 80% which is higher than the national average rate of 59.5%. Male literacy rate is 85% and the female is 76%.
Thanjavur is known for its Carnatic music. It has produced many classical musicians and Bharatnatyam dancers. It has become the second important site for the annual Natyanjali dance festival.
Tiruvaiyaru, close to Thanjavur is the place where the great musician saint Tyagaraja lived. Every year in the Tamil month of Thai, the musicians from all over the country will hold Tyagaraja Aradhana.
Tamil, Marathi and English are the main spoken languages of Thanjavur. Thanjavur is also known for its unique painting style called Tanjore painting. The artist use a combination of canvas background with glass, metals to depict and decorate various scenes from Hindu mythology.
The worship places of Thanjavur are
Temple-Sri Brahadeeswarar Temple, Mariammankoli temple
Church- Schwartz Church, St, Marry's Church.
Mosque- Dargah near bus stand, and Irwin bridge.
Festivals of Thanjavur
Visiting places of Thanjavur
The Palace- The Palace near the Brahadeeswarar Temple was built half by Nayakas and another half by Marathas.
Art gallery- In the palace there is an art gallery, where all the antique pieces and statues are preserved.
Saraswati Mahal Library- In that palace only this library is situated, where over 30,000 palm leaves and paper manuscripts in Indian and European languages are preserved. There are also two other libraries are available in the city. They are Tamil University Library and Municipal library.
Nagore - It is a very famous pilgrimage centre.
Vailankanni- It is a Roman Catholic pilgrimage centre.
Manora- It is eight-storey tower, which was built by Raja Sefroji in 1814.
Thanjavur is renowned for its cultural education.
The famous schools of Thanjavur are-
The famous colleges and managements are -
Medical and paramedical Colleges are -
The engineering Colleges are-
The Polytechnics are-
Tamil University and Sastra Deemed University are the two famous universities of Thanjavur.
The city also has some research centres, including Paddy Processing Research Centre, Soil and Water Research Centre. There are also two Teachers Training Institutes are present.