The stone craft of Bihar follows the traditional technique of polishing which is practiced at Patharkatti in Gaya district and in Chandil and Karaikalla in Singhbhum District. The availability of a huge variety of stones with the accessibility of dexterous artisans has been the reasons of the development of the stone craft of Bihar. The state is abundant in supplying lustrous grey green stones with black variety, blue black pot stone and several other stones from which several artefacts are created by the artisans. These stones are used not only to create deities or religious figures but are used in creating household items such as thali, bowls etc. The Gaya town of Bihar presents a huge variety when it comes to stone crafts like statues, images, pestle, stem handled drinking glasses, smoothly turned out coasters and large platters customarily used to serve offerings to deities at temples, the mortar kharal (medicine grinder) tableware, plates, tapering glasses, glass covers etc.
The stone crafts of Bihar are also famous for architecture works of fountains and tables. Including these artefacts the deft artisans of Bihar create numerous traditional Buddha figurines and excellently carved the images of Lord Ganesha. The archaeological relics prove that the stone crafts of Orissa bear a rich cultural heritage that has been embedded in the soil since antiquity. The stone crafts have a great impact on the socio cultural background of Orissa as well. The artisans possess immense dexterity and maintain a high degree of creativity. Some of these artisans have been in this particular occupation for generations. The artisans mainly use marbles, soapstone, black granite and sandstone to create different items with the help of simple tools like hammers and chisel. Each region has a distinct form of carving and the style differs from one another. The artisans of Pathuriasahi are adept at creating superb stone carving that are mainly found in the temple architectures and figurines. They prefer to use soapstone for providing form to their creations. The artisans of Balasore and its surrounding villages are dexterous in creating utilitarian utensils out of semi hard stone encompassing pots, glass, ashtrays, plates, dolls etc. Even different types of containers made up of kochila stone, sandstone, Nilgiri stone, soap stone, kendumundi stone, serpentine stone and soft stone are available in the local markets of Orissa.
The stone crafts of Orissa are perfect for the excellent carving found in the temples of Orissa like the Lingaraja temple, Gopunath temple, Jagannath temple, and the Sun temple in Konark. Puri has been noted for outstanding stone work that dates back to the Kalinga School. The wonderful carvings in the temples testify the creative exuberance of the artisans of Orissa. The deft craftsmen of Orissa, apart from creating replicas of religious deities and carving temples, create different articles that are used as utilitarian objects and sometimes are used as souvenirs. The artisans of Mangalpur near Balasore create different articles including utensils from the semi-grey stone of Khichinga. A variety of figurines and some utilitarian items like ash-trays, vases and bowls. The stone works of Orissa produced in Bhubaneshwar, Puri, Lalitagiri and Khiching are considered to be in huge demand and have a perfect blend of artistry and socio cultural aspects. The stone crafts of Orissa have long been praised because of the style it carries and the authenticity of the craftsmanship it have been bearing since the dawn of artistic evolution.
The stone crafts of West Bengal are centred round Simulpur in Midnapur, Patun, Dainhata and Burdwan. The traditional stone carvers are called by the name of Sildah or Bhaskars or Sutradhars in West Bengal. The most important centre of Bengal school of Stone Sculpture is located in Burdwan.
The stone crafts of West Bengal are well admired for the excellent sculptures, the carved panels and plaques in the temples in the region. The Bhaskars or Sutradhars generally use brick-red stone to create stone figurines for temples and sometimes for houses. The artisans of this state create a huge variety of utensils and other utility items with a semi-soft grey stone which is known by the name of Phyllite. This particular craft reached its zenith during the Pala dynasty. The Buddhist and Tantrik cult of that period have conceived their own god-form which became the subject matter of the creations of the local artisans. The artisans with their indigenous style and creativity make different articles like bowls, cups and plates of various shapes and sizes. Sometimes the mythological images and religious deities are created out of stones, among which intricately carved elephants and the idol of Goddess Durga are widely found in the local market of West Bengal.
The temple of Belur in West Bengal which was founded by Swami Vivekananda, the disciple of Ram Krishna, is an example of excellent stone work of the West Bengal artisans. This temple is built majorly on a chunar stone and some portions in the front part of the temple are made of cement. This temple exhibits three umbrellas like domes at the top which are built in Rajput-Moghul styles.
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