(Last Updated on : 01/02/2013)
Kalinkattupparani, also known as Kalingattuparani is an 11th century Tamil poetic work belonging to the Parani genre of Tamil literature
. The song of war, composed by Ceyankontar (Jayamkondar) and it celebrates the victory of Chola
King, Kulottunga Chola I
over Anantavarman Chodaganga (Anantavarman Codankan), the Anantavarman Chodaganga in the Chola Kalinga war
. The literary work of Kalinkattupparani provides a dramatic and a graphic description of scenes at the battleground. It is considered as one of the magnum opus of Tamil literature with its grandiose style and diction.
Kulottunga Chola I appear to be the central character and the hero of this splendid work titled Kalinkattupparani. Ceyankontar was the poet in the court of the Chola ruler and he provides vivid narration on different sections like lineage of the ruler, his birth, the royal family, his training in warfare which he received as a early years, his ascension to the royal throne, exploits and his consequent progress to the city of Kanchi
. The author of the work then elaborately describes the training that the Chola King received in warfare and provides account about his valour and heroics in Chakrakottam and Vayiragaram, when Kulottunga was still young. Ceyankontar also mentions about his queens and the fact that Kulottunga Chola I desired to shift his capital to the city of Kanchi. Ultimately the poet explains the circumstances that led to the Kalinga war.
Karunakara Thondaiman (Karunakarattontaiman), a Pallava
prince and a feudatory is also mentioned in the literary work who distinguished himself in this affair. Karunakara Thondaiman became the commander of Kulottunkan's army. The literary work of Kalinkattupparani, written by Ceyankontar (Jayamkondar), narrates the accounts and the valour of the commander Karunakara Thondaiman and the Chola king Kulottunga Chola I in the Chola Kalinga war. This is the earliest literary work in the Parani genre in Tamil, which deals with battle as main theme. As the name of the country of the defeated Kalinga King is Kalinkam, the literary work is named as Kalinkattupparani.
The soldiers pray to goddess Kali
at the combat zone. Mythological customs affirms that the goddess is encircled by hordes of ghosts. Kalinkattupparani starts with a narration of the battleground where no war has been fought for a long time. Thus the ravenous ghosts plead to goddess Kali, to alleviate their hunger. Then the report related to the attack of Kalinga by the Chola army is received. The war begins and the panorama of the war zone is elaborately described. The soldiers and elephants of the enemy lie slaughtered in heaps. The amusing feast of the ghosts is set forth at length. The eminence of the triumphant Chola king is portrayed at several places in the literary work.
Kalinkattupparani is composed of verses of 2 lines called Talicai in Tamil. These are renowned for their opulence and are suitable to treat the war themed literary works. There are hundreds of stanzas in Kalinkattupparani that are noted for their vitality and magnificence.