(Last Updated on : 19/11/2011)
Mandala theory of state is well known for outlining the theory of foreign policy, in which immediate neighbours are considered as enemies and any state on the other side of a neighbouring state is regarded as an ally, or the enemy's enemy is a friend. Kautilya put this principle in several different ways. According to the third and the fifth constituents are friends. The second, the fourth, and the sixth are enemies.
He assumed that he lived in a world of relations in which one either conquered or suffered an attack. He believed in the policy of preparing for war and planning to conquer. Diplomacy was another weapon that was used in the warfare that would occur or is planned. After analyzing a king's configuration of potential enemies and allies, he calculated how a king must think and act. A king who is endowed with personal excellences and has good policies should be considered as the would-be conqueror. One who encircles him on all sides, with territory immediately next to his is called an enemy. One with territory separated by other territory is called an ally. A neighbouring state that has no support can be killed. If the neighbouring state has strong support then they should be harassed or weakened.
This theory presupposes the division of the country into several small states. The state that is the neighbour of one's neighbour is considered to be an ally. Enemy and ally, enemy's ally, one's ally's ally and enemy's ally's ally figure in the Mandala. This follows the assumption of enmity between neighbours.
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