During this time, Wararkar's plays provided some kind of an incentive to drama by means of realism in production and social context. His Kunjavihari (1908), Haach Mulacha Baap (1916), and Bhvomikanya Seeta (1955) are noteworthy. M. N. Joshi's Municipality (1925) caricatured the activities of newly established local governments. The efforts to rejuvenate theater led to the formation of an organization called Natyamanvantara in the early 1930s. The effort did not last too long, but it brought S. V. Vartak (1885-1950) to prominence as a playwright. His adaptation of Henrik Ibsen was produced with little success. This experiment also introduced, for the first time, a woman to play a female role on the professional stage.
Vartak's Takshasheela (1933), M. N. Joshi's Municipality, S. P. Joshi's Khadashtak (1927), and P. K. Atre's Sashtang Namaskar (1933) were popular until the mid-1950s. Atre's play makes fun of many social fads of the time, like physical exercise as a cure-all for problems, physical and sociopolitical; the effeminate stereotype of romantic poets; belief in astrology; and newly developed passion for movies. After a successful debut, Atre wrote Gharabaher (1934) and Udyacha Sansar (1938), focusing on the plight of women in middle-class, joint families. His Lagnachi Bedi and Bhramacha Bhopala were well-written comedies. His adaptations of Moliere's L'Avare as Kavadichumbak and Brandon Thomas's Charley's Aunt as Moruchi Marashi were also successful on stage.
M. G. Ranganekar (1907) entered the scene as Atre shifted to successful careers in cinema, journalism, and politics. Ranganekar's Kulavadhu (1942) is a watered-down adaptation of Ibsen's Doll's House. It brought the urban, middle-class audience back to the stage.
Anant Kanekar was one of the founders of Natyamanvantar. He successfully adapted from the works of Henrik Ibsen, John Galsworthy, James Barrie, and Oliver Goldsmith. He also contributed to the introduction of a new form to the theater, one-act plays. During this period, popularity of writers in English had increased in Maharashtra. The educated class took pride in reading and keeping up with trends in the West. In this milieu, one-act plays were introduced and established. Many prominent dramatists, like P. L. Deshpande, Shamrao Oka, M. G. Ranganekar, Madhav Manohar, and Vijay Tendulkar, began their literary careers by writing one-act plays.
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