During the Mediaeval period and the Mughal era, the more important estates bordering the Garo Hills were Karaibari, Kalimalupara, Mechpara and Habraghat in Rongpur district, Susang and Sherput in Mymensing district of Bengal and Bijini in the Eastern Duars. Early records describe the Garos as being in a state of intermittent conflict with Zamindars of these large estates. Further, medieval period history of South Garo Hills District also states that while the Garos in the hills were still divided into a number of minor Nokmaships, the plain tracts came to be included in the Zamindari Estates. Eventually these estates developed into fewer but larger complexes.
Besides, the early and medieval period, the history of South Garo Hills District also includes modern period. It states that the contact between the British and the Garos started towards the end of the 18th Century after the British East India Company had secured the Diwani of Bengal from the Mughal Emperors. Consequently, all the estates bordering Garo Hills, which for all practical purposes had been semi-independent, were brought under the control of the British rulers. Though political control had passed from the Mughals to the British, the latter, like Mughals, had no desire to control the Estates or their tributaries directly. The Zamindars were not disturbed in the internal management of their estates. Thus in the beginning, the intermittent conflict between the Zamindars and the Garos went on unabated until the situation deteriorated to the extent that the British were forced to take notice. This development led ultimately to the annexation of the Garo Hills in 1873 by the British. Captain Williamson was the first Deputy Commissioner of the unified district. The district was bifurcated into two districts - East Garo Hills District and West Garo Hills District in October 1979. West Garo Hills District was further divided into two administrative districts of West and South Garo Hills on June 1992.