(Last Updated on : 28/10/2014)
Geography of Wardha district can be physiographically divided into three distinct units. These are- the uplands of the north and north east with Talegaon plateau; the narrow Arvi plains to the west of the first unit, and, the Wardha - Hinganghat plains. The northern and eastern hilly part of the district is a part of the Satpura spur which projects southwards. This hilly part slopes on three sides - west, south and north - to merge in to the Wardha valley. This descent to the south is through a series of terraces, at least three of which are distinctly recognisable - one at 500m, another at 400m and the third at 200 - 350m contour levels. The gradient is much steeper on the western slopes and the northern slopes.
The Arvi plains are a narrow, north to south elongated strip, about 70 kms long and 6 to 8 kms wide along the western boundary of the Arvi sub division. They are adjoining the Wardha valley, with the general elevation being 300 to 350 m and an undulating rolling topography.
The whole of the Hinganghat Subdivision and the southern two thirds of the Wardha subdivision form a fertile riverine plain draining and sloping gently southwards towards the Wardha River
. The land falls from about 300m to 350 m level in the north to about 220 m in the south.
The soil cover in the district is classified in four main classes:
1. Kali (rich black soil)
2. Morand (black to dark brown soil)
3. Kharadi (poor and shallow dark black soil mixed with sand)
4. Bardi (hilly land strewn with boulders)
The Arvi lowlands are covered by kali soil with a high clay percentage in the area adjacent to the Wardha River and by grey-black morand soils away from the river and nearer to the foothills. The soils of the Arvi lowlands are considered to be the most fertile in the entire district and perhaps in the entire Vidarbha region.
The major land use category in the district is agriculture. Kharif crops are widespread in the southern part comprising the tahsils of Samudrapur, Hinganghat, Wardha and Deoli. In the northern tahsils of Ashti, Arvi, Karanja
, and Selu, agriculture and forest coverage occupy more or less equal areas. A significantly large area under orchards is found in Hinganghat tahsil, with smaller patches in Samudrapur and Arvi tahsils. Deciduous forest is spread noticeably in Selu, Karnaja and Arvi tahsils with degraded forest around the fringes.
The geology of Wardha district basically consists of Deccan Trap
lava flows with some patches of Gondwana formations, Lametas and alluvium along the major river courses. This lava flows in the entire area of the district and has a depth of 400 metres. The sedimentary rocks of the Gondwana Super Group are seen to occur as inlayers in the eastern extremity of the district. A small patch of Lametas occur in the east - southeast part of the district. The Deccan Traps cover about 95 percent of the area and comprise rocks of basaltic composition. The alluvial deposits are restricted to the banks of the Wardha River and its tributaries. The thickness is reported to be 15-20m.
The various landforms in the district are of three types: Structural, Denudational and Fluvial. Dissected Basaltic Plateau (Highly, Moderately or Slightly Dissected) is a major geomorphic unit characterised by flat topped hills, terraced features. Denudational hills comprise Gondwana group of rocks and occur as low relief hills east of Samudrapur. Alluvial plains along the river Wardha and its tributaries are gently sloping.
All the rivers of the district originate from the various mountain peaks of the Satpura hill range from the northern side. The Wardha is the most important river in the district. It rises in the Multai plateau of the Satpura mountain ranges
and flows all along the northern and western boundaries of the district. The other important river in the district is the Vena River
, which flows from adjoining Nagpur district to the Hinganghat tahsil to merge with the Wardha River at village Sawangi. Yashoda river
, Venna and Bakli are the main tributaries of the Wardha River. Other rivers in the district are Pothra, Bor river
, Dhom and Kar, which remain generally dry during the summer but turn into furious torrents during the rainy season and pose a threat of flood to the nearby villages. Bor and Dham rivers originate from the Arvi Tahasil and merge with the Vena River at Mandgaon of Samudrapur Tahasil, whereas the river Yashoda originates from Arvi, also flows in Deoli Tahasil and further merges into the Wardha River. There is no major dam in the district.