(Last Updated on : 21-05-2013)
Public Service Commissions in India include members appointed by the Government of India
both in the civil and military branches of administration. During British rule in India the Indian Imperial Service which included Indian Civil Service, Indian Police Service
and the Indian Medical Service were posts of the highest rank and they were called the All India Services. Most of the officers of these services were Europeans and enjoyed a number of special immunities and privileges. They were appointed by the Secretary of State for India. After Independence almost all the officers of the Imperial Service retired on pension and the National Government replaced the Imperial Service by the All India or Union Services.
The New Constitution of India provides for 5 categories of services on the Civil Branch of Administration namely-
1. All India Services
2. Union Civil Service
3. State Civil Service
4. Civil post under the Union
5. Civil post under the State
The 5 classification show that both the Union and the States have their separate public services for carrying on the work of the government but in addition to these two, there is a 3rd category of service, called the All India Services which are common the Union and the States.
The term Civil Posts refers to those personnel in the Civil Administration of the Union or of the State who have been not incorporated into a service of either of the governments. On a resolution passed by 2/3rd members of the Council of States, the Parliament may, by law, provide for the creation of All India Services. The Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service are included in the All India Services while the Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Indian Customs Service, Indian Income-Tax Service, Indian Foreign Service are examples of the Central or Union Service.
The recruitment to these services is made by the Union Public Service Commission
on the basis of a written competitive examination supplemented by a viva voce personality test. Candidates of All India Services and Class I Central Service are to receive a 4 months training as probationers in the National Academy of Administrators at Mussoorie
. The Police Service probationers are trained in the Central Training College at Mount Abu
. The President or the Governor, as the case may be, may make rules regulating the recruitment and conditions of service of the public service until the State Legislature makes appropriate laws regulating these services. Members of different service, either under the Union, Central or State shall hold office of pleasure of the President or of the Governor as the case may be.
No person belonging to any of the 5 categories of services shall be dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed. No person can be removed or reduced in rank before he has been given a reasonable opportunity to defend himself against the charges leveled against him. But this rule will not apply when the person has been convicted on a criminal charge. A person may be punished or dismissed in case of proved incompetence or gross negligence of duty. The members of the Services are required by Government Servants Conduct Rules to abstain from party politics, to observe official secrecy and to carry out the orders of the superiors.