Bacterial meningitis is among the types of meningitis that affects people in exceptional cases than the viral form. Once a person comes under the impact of this type of ailment, it often results in more serious health consequences. Bacterial meningitis is fatal and is a severe disability caused by brain injury. Bacterial meningitis is diagnosed into several forms. The two major types represent in the bacterial meningitis are the meningococcal and pneumococcal.
The bacteria causing meningitis are common and found in the back of the nose and throat and in the upper respiratory tract. These bacteria spread among people by coughing as well as sneezing. These bacteria can exist in an individual's body for days, weeks, or months without affecting the person. It has been researched that only on rare occasions these bacteria overcome the body's defenses and invade the cerebra spinal fluid, causing meningitis. The bacteria that cause meningococcal disease are called Neisseria meningitidis. There are several strains of Neisseria meningitidis. On the other hand, pneumococcal meningitis is caused by pneumococcus bacteria, which also cause several diseases of the respiratory system. This bacterial meningitis concludes with a brain damage. There are still other types of bacterial meningitis that include Neonatal meningitis. This form affects the newborn babies and is caused by Group B streptococcus bacteria. This type of bacteria resides in the intestines of the individual. Staphylococcal meningitis is a rare form caused by staphylococcus bacteria. It typically develops as a complication of a diagnostic or surgical procedure. Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) is caused by haemophilus bacteria.
Among the two major types of meningitis, viral meningitis is a common form. It is also called aseptic meningitis. It is caused by viruses is considered to be less debilitating. Patients under the bout of this type experience mild or no symptoms and recover fully without complications. Many different viruses result in viral meningitis. People who are exposed to virus are mainly affected by viral meningitis. The viruses are transmitted from one person to another by coughing or sneezing and also through poor hygiene. Viruses present in the sewage and polluted waters also lead to the incidence of this disease. Viral meningitis may also develop following the mumps or chicken pox. Mosquito-born viruses also account for the meningitis.
A common intestinal virus, enteroviruses viruses are found in the bowel and are usually shed in the feces as well as in discharges from the mouth and nose. People who become infected with the virus contract are mainly through hand-to-mouth contact. Several non infectious meningitis are also classified as they occur as the result of certain drugs, spread of cancer to the meninges or by several inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis. Another type of meningitis exist which is called Cryptococcal meningitis. Cryptococcal meningitis is a brain infection, which is found mainly in dirt and bird droppings. Cryptococcus fungus is found to be present in the human beings for quite some time during the entire life span.
Though, viral meningitis does not affect an individual too seriously, yet both the types of meningitis needs proper treatment as soon as detected. Meningitis is mostly common in kids; nevertheless it can occur in people with older age too.
(Last Updated on : 12-02-2014)
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