Eco Parks in Uttaranchal
Uttaranchal in the northern part of India is a newly created state. It is also known as the ‘Abode of the Gods’. Although a small state, there is variance in the stretch of land or geographical terrain of Uttaranchal, which is complimented by variance in species of flora and fauna. In fact, Uttaranchal is known to be one of those rare Indian states with the richest variety in its biological or wildlife resource. More specifically, the geographical terrain in Uttaranchal ranges on a continuum from lofty mountains predominated by thick blanket of snow to river valleys, from undulating highlands to the densely forested Terai region. These geographical or physical features are stocked with wildlife. Recognition of the variety of wildlife in the state paved the way for the creation of a number of important eco parks in Uttaranchal. The naturalists and environmentalists of Uttaranchal took the principal initiative of preserving its natural resources in eco parks, several years back. They also got necessary assistance from the State Government of Uttaranchal and the Government of India at a later period. The eco parks are currently being run and managed by both the private and government organizations. These eco parks are the Corbett National Park, the Rajaji National Park, the Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Sanctuary and the Valley of Flowers.
Jim Corbett National Park
Jim Corbett National Park is located in Nainital, along the banks of the River Ramganga. Globally, this park can be pinpointed at coordinates 29 degrees, 25 minutes and 29 degrees, 39 minutes north latitudes 78 degrees 44 minutes and 79 degrees 07 minutes east longitudes. It was established in the year 1936. This national park is spread over an area of about 1,318.54 square kilometers (509.09 sq mi). More specifically, about 520 square kilometers (200 sq mi) has been designated as the core area and about 797.72 square kilometers (308.00 sq mi) has been delineated as the buffer area of the park. Project Tiger, Government of Uttarakhand, Wildlife Warden is recognized as its managing body. It is the first park selected for preservation under the Project Tiger initiative. Jim Corbett National Park is recognized as India's first and finest national park. Relative to most of the other protected areas of India, the weather in the park is temperate type.
Flora of Jim Corbett National Park
Jim Corbett National Park has been estimated to house a total of 488 different species of plants. The lower regions of this park are dominated by Sal trees. On a contrary, the higher regions are marked by variance in species of plants and trees. Tree density has been estimated to be higher in the areas of Sal forests and lowest in the Anogeissus-Acacia Catechu forests. This park is also known for the growth of a variety of bamboos.
Fauna of Jim Corbett National Park
Jim Corbett National Park has been estimated to serve as a home to about 33 species of reptiles, about 7 species of amphibians, about 7 species of fishes and about 36 species of dragonflies. Some of the animals of this national park are Bengal tigers, Elephants, Leopards, Panthers and Jungle Cats.
Avifauna of Jim Corbett National Park
Jim Corbett National Park also provides shelter to more than 586 species of resident and migratory birds. Some of them are the Cuckoos, Woodpeckers, Crested Serpent Eagles, Peacocks, Peahens, Kingfishers and the Red Jungle Fowl (ancestor of all domestic Fowl).
Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park is located along the hills and foothills of Shivalik ranges in the Himalayan foothills. Globally, this national park can be pinpointed at coordinates 30 degrees 03 minutes 29 seconds north and 78 degrees 10 minutes 22 seconds east. It was established in the year 1983. This national park is spread over an area of about 820.42 square kilometers (202,630 acres). Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Uttarakhand is recognized as its managing body. The three main seasons experienced in this park are winter, summer and monsoons.
Flora of Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park is a home to broadleaved deciduous forests, riverine vegetation, grasslands and pine forests. The jungles of this national park are dense. The under-wood is known to be light and is often absent. This under-wood comprises of Rohini Mallotus philippensis, Amaltas Cassia fistula, Semul Bombax Ceiba etc.
Fauna of Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park provides shelter to about 23 species of mammals. Indian Elephants, Blue Bull, Hog Deer, Spotted Deer, Sambhar Deer and Wild Boar are some of the animals preserved in this national park.
Avifauna of Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park serves as a natural habitat to about 315 species of birds. India's National bird, Peacocks, Rusty Cheaked Scimitars, Babblers and Butterflies are some of the avifauna preserved in Rajaji National Park.
Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Sanctuary
Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Sanctuary is located in the higher reaches of Garhwal Himalayas. Globally, Govind Pashu Vihar can be pinpointed at coordinates 31 degrees 06 minutes north and 78 degrees 17 minutes east. It was established on 1st March in the year 1955. This national park is spread over an area of about 958 square kilometers (370 sq mi). The Government of India had started a Snow Leopard Project in this national park.
Flora of Govind Pashu Vihar
Flora of Govind Pashu Vihar ranges on a continuum from the lowest altitude of Govind Pashu Vihar comprising of the Western Himalayan Broadleaf Forests to Western Himalayan Subalpine Conifer Forests and Western Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows at it’s highest altitude.
Fauna of Govind Pashu Vihar
The fauna group of Govind Pashu Vihar consists of about 15 species of large mammals and about 150 species of birds. Some of the animal species protected in this national park are Snow Leopard, Common Leopard, Hedgehog, Himalayan Tahr and Asian Black Bear.
Valley of Flowers
The Valley of Flowers is located on the upper expansions of Bhyundar Ganga. Globally, this valley can be pinpointed at coordinates 30 degrees, 44 minutes and 00 seconds north and 79 degrees 38 minutes 00 seconds east. It was declared a national park in the year 1982. This valley is spread over an area of about 87.5 square kilometers.
Flora of Valley of Flowers
Almost 300 species of wild flowers have been recorded in the Valley of Flowers. This valley is known to have the largest potpourri of wild flower species. Some of the wild flowers grown in this valley are the daisy, marigold, Himalayan blue poppy, birch, morina, dianthus and calendula.
Fauna of Valley of Flowers
CP Kala had recorded a total of about 13 species of mammals in the Valley of Flowers. Some of the animals preserved in the park are common leopard, red fox, flying squirrel, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan yellow-throated marten and blue sheep.
Indian Flora and Fauna
Eco Parks in India
Indian Wildlife Sanctuaries
Indian National Parks
Indian Biosphere Reserves
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