The name of the Maratha valiant warrior Shivaji comes up time and again in the history of Pune. With an early beginning, the place has witnessed many conquests and people have laid down their life, defending their honour. Legendary battles, comprising the Nizams, the Mughals, the Marathas, the Peshwas and finally the British can be seen illustrated in Pune's rich yesteryears. The Pune Gazetteer explains the term Pune as Punya - a holy place. In Hindu tradition, a convergence (sangama) of two rivers is sanctified. Hence, this city, where there is a confluence of two rivers, is Punyanagari.
Copper Plates dating back from 758 and 768 illustrate that by the closing of 8th century, an agricultural colony, known as Punnaka, Punaka Vishaya or Punya Vishaya existed where Pune stands in the present day. The plates designate that the Rashtrakutas governed the place. Pune was part of the Yadava Empire of Deogiri from the 9th century, till 1327. The Nizamshahi sultans later ruled it, until the Mughal Empire annexed it in the 17th century. In 1595, Maloji Bhosale was nominated the Jahagirdar of Pune and Supe by the Mughals.Through several other ascensions, Shahaji's son, Shivaji Bhonsle (later Chattrapati Shivaji) moved here with his mother Jijabai. After Shivaji was coronated Chhatrapati (King) in 1649, he supervised additional development in Pune, including the building of the Guruwar, Somwar, Ganesh and Ghorpade Peths.
According to the history of Pune, Baji Rao I became the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, ruled by Chattrapati Shahuji, in 1720. By 1730, the palace of Shaniwarwada had been erected on the banks of the Mutha River, heralding in the era of Peshwa domination in the city. As their primary place of residence, the Peshwas constructed numerous temples and bridges in the city. However, they fell into decline after their loss in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and the Battle of Kharda against the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1795. In 1802, Pune was conquered by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly bringing in the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-05. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British in 1817. The Peshwas were beaten in the Battle of Khadki near Pune, and the city was subsequently confiscated. It was then placed under the sway of the Bombay Presidency and the British built an enormous military cantonment to the east of the city. Nanasaheb Peshwa, the adopted son of the last Peshwa Baji Rao II, rebelled against British East India Company rule in 1856, as part of the Indian Mutiny. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and Tatya Tope assisted him. After the mutiny ran unsuccessful, the final remainders of the Maratha Empire were annexed to British India.
The modern history of Pune, narrates the city to be one of the most prosperous and booming center of education and technology. The city of Pune is the origin of various movements like social, religious, educational, political, economic and literary.