The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation was initially led by enigmatic personalities like Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. But in 1971, the party went through a division within themselves. It broke up when Satyanarayan Singh grossed out against Majumdars's sectarianism. But the original party remained loyal to Majumdar. Later CPI(ML) led by Majumdar split into pro- and anti-Lin Biao-factions. The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation party emerged out of the anti-Lin Biao faction.
In 1975, Vinod Mishra, a party member was elected as the general secretary of the party. A reform process took place within the party from the year 1977. In 1979, it was declared that mass organisations should be produced in every front (which the original CPI(ML) had reprobated as "economism"). After the death of Mao Zedong most of the other Indian ML-factions decried the reorientation with the Communist Party of China that was pushed through by Deng Xiaoping. But Mishra's CPI(ML) always sustained good relations with the Communist Party of China.
In 1982, as the Indian Peoples Front was constituted, under the name of IPF, the party started repugning elections. IPF won a seat in Lok Sabha in the 1989 elections from Ara, Bihar. The party won a seat in Assam in the elections of 1991, through the mass movement Autonomous State Demand Committee. In 1994, as IPF was dissolved, the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation started contesting elections under its proper name. Under the banner of ASDC, the party continued to contend elections till the year 1999.
Vinod Mishra expired in 1998. Dipankar Bhattacharya, from West Bengal currently holds the post of general secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. The party won 0.3% of the votes and one seat in the Lok Sabha elections of 1999. Mainly due to a schism within ASDC the seat was lost in the 2004 elections. Liberation is the english-language publication from the party. From this issue, the party is called 'CPI(ML) Liberation'. There are several other CPI(ML)s in India, such as CPI(ML) New Democracy, CPI(ML) Janashakti and CPI(ML) Red Flag.
Revolutionary Youth Association (RYA); All India Students Association (AISA); All India Agricultural Labour Association (AIALA); All India Peasants' Coordination Committee; All India Central Council of Trade Unions (AICCTU); All India Progressive Women's Association (AIPWA); Autonomous State Demand Committee (ASDC) are the main mass organisations of the party.