The name Maithon literally means mother's abode. Situated on the banks of the Damodar River, the major attraction of the town is a lake. The lake covers an area of 65 sq km. and offers boating and fishing facilities. Near the lake there is a bird sanctuary and a deer park. The Maithon Dam constructed on the Barakar River is another prime attraction for visitors. The Maithon dam was built with the objective to control floods. It also has an underground power station, which is the only one in South East Asia. A few kilometers from the Dam there is an ancient temple named Awake Temple at Kalyaneswari.
According to the Indian Census report published in 2001, the population of Maithon was enumerated to be 19,728. Out of it, the males account for 53% of the population while the females comprises of the remaining 47%. In Maithon, 11% of the population is less than six years of age. The Census report also throws light on the literacy rate of , Maithon , Jharkhand, which gives an idea about the status of the population. The average literacy rate of Maithon is 74%, which is much higher than the national average literacy rate, which is 59.5%. To be specific, the male literacy rate is 81% and the female literacy rate is 67%.