In 1930 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai led a campaign for the poor farmer who were unable to pay the tax in Rae Bareli district. For this reason he was arrested and imprisoned for six months. In the year 1937 when congress won provincial election Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was appointed there as the venue and prison minister of Govind Ballabh Pant's cabinet in Uttar Pradesh. He developed the condition of the prisons to make prisoner's life better. In 1946, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was nominated as the Home Minister of Uttar Pradesh.He abolished the zamindari system of Uttar Pradesh.After independence Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was appointed as the minister of communications in Nehru's cabinet. During this time, he launched some good schemes including the night airmail service in 1948 and OYT scheme for a new telephone connection.
In 1952 after the first general election Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was given the charge of food and agriculture ministry.During this tenure he successfully solved the man-made foodshortage problem of the country. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was popularly known as "Rafi Sahib".
He died on 24 October 1954. A road in Calcutta has been named after him.