(Last Updated on : 28/01/2011)
Tribes of Mizoram have inhabited the region since its origin. While the history of Mizoram cannot be traced very easily, it is often believed that the region was originally inhabited by the Mongoloid and other tribal groups who migrated from China and other parts of extreme north. The state of Mizoram which is located in the extreme southern end of north eastern India, share its national borders with Tripura
, and Manipur
while its international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh. This small state of India has great scenic beauty with rolling hills, valleys, lakes and rivers. Like other states of seven sisters Mizoram too is largely populated with the tribal population of India. The state of Mizoram covers an area of 888, 573 sq kilometres with English and Mizo as its official language.
Tribes of Mizoram
Tribes of Mizoram largely include four types of tribal communities. The tribal people of Mizoram largely include the Chakma tribes
, Pawi tribes, Ralte tribes and the Kuki tribes who travelled from upper regions of the continent. Chakma tribes are the most important tribal group of Mizoram who practice a combined religion of Hinduism
and animism. The Chakma tribes, who range for about eighty thousand within the state of Mizoram, are largely influenced by the Indo Aryan culture which is reflected within their language. Largely they speak a language which is closely associated with Bengali. Along with Chakma tribes the area is inhabited by other tribes which include Pawi tribes and Ratle tribes. Pawi tribes are named after the place where they largely inhabit instead of the name of the clan which is the usual trend of the Tribal community. Ralte tribes are another tribal group which inhabit in Mizoram. This group is largely settled in the Lushai villages located in the northern provinces of Aizawl
. Himar is the most significant group among them who immigrated to the hills of Mizoram and got settled. Along with is the Kuki tribes are also found in the region that inhabit in the hilly regions of the land.
History of Tribes of Mizoram
Tribes of Mizoram have been the most important feature of Mizoram who travelled all the way from the land of China and upper regions of the continent and settled down in the area. The history of Mizoram can be largely marked by three phenomenons; while the initial phase of Mizoram is largely captured by the tribal raids of various tribal communities, the second phase witnessed some level of literary awareness which gave primary political awareness to the people of Mizoram which helped the people of Mizoram to fight their independence movement. Within the third phase of Mizoram`s history the political requirement and security of the area paved the way for the creation of the new state of Mizoram under Union of India as a Union territory in 20th February 1985. As such the history of Mizoram includes its independence move and its association with India along with the tribal culture of the land.
Social Structure of Tribes of Mizoram
Tribes of Mizoram primarily reside within the small clans which have turned out to be small villages that have a separate house for its village head. The social life of the mizos largely depends on a un translated code of ethics which defines the duty of every mizo towards his society. The people of Mizoram usually celebrate a number of festivals which are part and parcel of the tribes of Mizoram. Besides celebrating all the national festivals, few local festivals are being feted in great exuberance. Chapchar Kut, Pawl Kut are the harvesting festivals. The most popular dances forms of these tribes of Mizoram are Cheraw, a bamboo dance, Khuallam, a dance for visitors or guests; Chheih Lam is feted at the end of a day-to-day work. Other dance forms like Solakar or Sarlamkai are performed by few tribes of Mizoram state. Tribe of Mizoram primarily depends on farming which forms the baser of their economy. This largely depends on the harvesting period which decides the type of crops. Along with farming the State of Mizoram has showed some variation in case of Education. While it was only 0.9% in 2005 it later on raised up to 89 percent in recent times.
Thus Tribes of Mizoram represent another string of Indian culture which has developed within the surrounding of hills and developed as a distinctive culture by itself. This reflects a distinct type of society that exists within the mountainous regions of India.