(Last Updated on : 13-01-2018)
Gadaba Tribe of Odisha is reckoned as one of the oldest and jovial tribes in India
. These Gadaba tribes mostly are located in the southern fringes of the Nabarangpur
and Koraput districts of Odisha
. Their main occupation is agriculture but they also give due importance to cattle rearing.
Origin of Gadaba Tribe
It is believed that they have their ancestral home in the north Vindhya mountain ranges
. In fact, Gadaba has got a link with Gada, which is a name of brook or a streamlet found in this portion of the Indian Territory. The houses of these Gadaba truly reflect their cultural heritage. These Gadaba tribes have developed their own language
, which is popularly known as Gutob.
Society of Gadaba Tribe
The society of the Gadaba tribe can be best understood in the villages
. The social administration of the village will be handled by the three-tier leadership;
Naik is the village elder and the post comes by succession.
Chalan who is selected from the elders assist the Naik.
Barrik comes from a lower caste family who live in the village.
is headed by a leader. The social set up of this tribe is also interesting because it has unique rules for marriage and even building houses. Marriages
are within the tribe and between certain assigned clans.
Occupation of Gadaba Tribe
is the main occupation of the Gadaba tribe, thus making their society an agrarian one. Moreover, some of them involve in other activities like gathering forest
. They use animals
and its products for various purposes. The cows and buffaloes are utilized mainly for ploughing. They do not milk
the cows, as they believe it reduces the strength of the animals.
Culture of Gadaba Tribe
The Gadabas also regard cattle-raising as the true source of their wealth. They believe in sacrificing pigs, cows and buffaloes at the altar of their Vanadevata (god of the jungle). Almost every family
rears pigs irrespective of its status and size and keep dogs to ward off evil spirits
Costumes of Gadaba Tribe
A Gadaba woman usually wears a two-piece dress which is very colourful, often striped in red, blue and white, which is woven by the women
themselves. The textile is made from the bark of the Kereng plant
. The ornaments they wear are not very different from those of other tribes. They wear beads of various colours in the hair, silver necklaces
and very big brass earrings
. The kerengis are being slowly replaced by the saree
. Men wear only a piece of cloth 'Languti' with a flail which hangs in front.
Religion of Gadaba Tribe
Gadabas are animists and worship spirits of ancestors. Worship and sacrifice is associated with agriculture or life-cycle. There is no trace of any idols. The religious leader for every village is called Dissari who performs most of the offerings, rituals
Festivals of Gadaba Tribe
The Gadaba people have a dozen festivals
around the year. The most important among them are Poos Porop, Choith Porop and Bandha Pond Porop. All these three are associated with the first fruits
. For every festival there is a puja
and a sacrifice conducted which are meant to thank or appease the spirits.