(Last Updated on : 27/09/2011)
The chest consists of five types as mentioned in Sarirabhinaya of Natyshastra
: Abhugna (bent slightly), Nirbhugna (raised up), Prakampita (quivering), Udvahita (lifted up) and Sama (level).
Abhugna - here the chest is kept lowered and the back is raised higher. The shoulders are slightly bent and left loose at times without being stiff. It is applied in embarrassment, despair, fainting, sorrow, fright, ailment, heartache, rain and bashfulness.
Nirbhugna - The Chest is stiff and the shoulders are not bent but kept raised. It is applied in paralysis, while expressing resentment, surprised look asserting the truth, and excessive arrogance.
Prakampita - The chest is ceaselessly heaved up and down. It's applied in laughter, weeping, exhaustion, terror, asthmatic fit, hiccup and misery
Udvahita - The chest is raised. It is applied in deep breathing, looking at the objects placed high above and in yawning.
Sama - All the limbs are in the symmetrical state and the chest has Sausthava or excellance.
The characteristics of the sides are of five types: Nata (bent), Samunnata (lifted up), Prasarita (extended), Vivartita (turned round) and Apasrta (slightly withdrawn).
Nata - The waist is bent slightly. One of the sides is bent a bit and a shoulder is drawn away slightly.
Unnata (lifted up) - The other side will be lifted up. The waist, the side, arm and the shoulder will be raised.
Prasarita - The sides are stretched in their respective directions.
Vivartita - The sacrum is kept turned round.
Apasrta - The side is reinstated to its original position from the Vivartita position.
The Nata should be applied while approaching some one; Unnata in going away; Prasarita is applied in amusement. Vivartita is applied in turning about and the Apasrta in returning.
The belly is of three bends: Ksama, Khalva and Purna. Ksama is thin, depressed is Khalva and the blown up is Purna.
The Ksama belly is applied while depicting laughter, crying and yawning. The Khalva is applied while displaying sickness, penance, weariness and hunger. The Purna belly is applied in gasping out, heaviness, disease, excessive eating.
In dance and drama there are five types of hip movements: Chinna (turned aside), Nivrtta (turned up), Recita (moved about), Kampita (Shivering) and Udvahita (lifted up). Chinna is when mid waist is turned aside. It becomes nivrtta when the same is turned to the fromt from a reverse position. If the hip moves in all directions it is Recita. If the sides of the hip are raised slowly it is Udvahita and if it moves up and down diagonally it is Kampita
The Chinna is applied while depicting exercises, agitated confusion and looking back turning round. The Nivrtta is applied when taking an about turn. The Recita is applied in wandering. Kampita is employed while depicting the movement of hunch backs, dwarfs. Udvahita is applied in depicting the movements of stout and bulky persons as well as the seductive movements of women.
There are five types of movements: Kampana (quivering), Vaiana (turning round), Stambhana (rigidity), Udvartana (springing up) and Vivartana (turning).
Kampana involves raising and lowering of the heels repeatedly. In Yalana the knees are drawn inwards. In stambhana all movements are suspended. In case of Udvartana the inward knees drawn and moved.
Kampana is applied in the case of the movements of the dramatics personal of the inferior type as well as in great fright. Valana is applicable in the case of the uninhibited movements of women; Stambhana is employed in despondency. In case of physical exercise and the Tandava dance Udvartana is employed. Vivartana is employed in case of movements due to agitation.
There are five types of movements of the shank: Avartita (turned), Nata (bent), Ksipta (thrown out), Udvahita (raised) and Parivrtta (turned back). In Avartita the left foot turns to the right and the right one turns to the left. The Nata is bending of the knee. When the shank is thrown out it is Ksipta and when it is raised up it is Udvahita. When the shank is turned back it is Parivrtta.
The Avartita is employed in the wandering stroll of the Vidusaka. Nata is applied in assuming standing posture and Asana. Kspita is employed while depicting the performance of exercises and the Tandava dance. Udvahita is employed in depicting Aviddha movements. Parivrtta is employed by the sponsors of the drafts in depicting Tandava.
There are five types of feet movements: Udghattita, Sama, Agratala Sancara, Aficita and Kuiicita. Udghattita - The actor stands on the fore part of the feet and the heels are allowed to fall on the ground. It's used for imitation either once or repeatedly in the high or medium speed.
Sama - The feet is placed on an even ground that is based on the presentation of a natural posture. It's applied when representing the natural position of the body in relation to the different Karanas.
Agratalasaiicara - The heels are thrown up. The big toe is projected forward and the other toes are kept bent. Its application is in inducing, breaking, remaining in standing posture, striking the ground, wandering and walking on the forepart of the foot.
Anicita - The heels rest on the ground; the forepart of the feet is raised and the toes are kept spread. This is applied while representing a movement when there is a wound at the forepart of the foot turning round in everyway, foot-being struck by something and in the diverse Bhramari movements.
Kuicita - The heels are thrown up toes are all bent down and the middle of the feet is bent. It is employed in Udatta going, turning round to the right and vice versa.