(Last Updated on : 26/09/2011)
Rules of drama in Natyashastra
reveal the genres of drama, plot structure, doctrine of bhava and rasa. The three major types of genres of drama are major, minor and love drama. Plot structure, plot elements, rasa and bhava have been elaborated.
or Major drama - there are ten types and the most common is the Nataka which contains five to ten acts. Nataka is based on a historical event or myth. Hero is given the most importance. A specific passion would feature in the plot. Time period is short and it is prolonged by intervals of narration. In case of a ten act it is known as Maha nataka.
Upa-rupaka or minor drama - There are eighteen types.
Prakarana or Love drama - These are totally fictitious and as such do not use any other source than invention.
Action possesses a five part development:
* Arambha is the desire to attain something
* Prayatna is the organized effort to achieve the goal
* Prapti-sambhava is the "possibility of success" regards to the efforts spent and the obstacles that needs to be conquered.
* Niyatapti is assurance of success
* Phalagama is the attainment of success
There are five plot elements: germ, drop, episode, incident and the conclusion.
The five critical meeting points of the plot are Mukha or the opening, Pratimukha or progression, Garbha or development, Vimarsha or pause, Nirvahana, conclusion or catastrophe
Doctrine of Rasa
Rasa is "the essence of impersonal emotion". According to Bharata, the drama creates "a dispassionate delight in the audience who have been able to look at life gradually and see it as a result of skill of the dramatist in presenting the eight major sentiments. In order to balance eight major "stable sentiments" and thirty-three "unstable sentiments" in a harmonious way" the bhava needs to be produced.
The eight "stable," bhavas are:
Rati or sringara: desire, affection, erotic longing
lasa or lasya: laughter, comic or farcical joy, not involving cynicism or derision
krodha or rudra: anger arising from ill treatment
shoka or karuna: sadness resulting from separation from a loved one
utsasha or vira: pride in one's own powers which lead to a display of energetic enterprise, bravery, charity or forgiveness
bhaya or bhayanaka: fear of reproach or attack
jugupsa or bibhatsa: aversion or loathing
vismaya or adbhuta: wonder, the connotation being that something evoking childlike surprise in encountered
The thirty-three "unstable" bhavas are: discouragement, weakness, apprehension, weariness, contentment, stupor, joy, depression, cruelty, anxiety, fright, envy, arrogance, indignation, recollection, death, intoxication, dreaming, sleeping, awakening, shame, demonic possession, distraction, assurance, indolence, agitation, deliberation, dissimulation, sickness, insanity, despair, impatience and inconstancy.