(Last Updated on : 28/09/2011)
The production of the play depends on Aharyabhinaya. Four kinds of Nepathya are Pusta (model work), Alamkara (Embellishment), Angaracana (painting the limbs of the body) and Sanjiva (Living creatures). Three kinds of Pusta (Model work) are: Sandhima
(Joined objects), Vyajima (Indicating objects) and Vestima (wrapped objects).
used in Natakas are made out of mat, hide cloth it is called Sandbima.
Vyajimas are objects made through mechanical devices. Vestima is that which is produced by wrapping. Vehicle, aerial chariots, shields, armours flagstaff, trees constructed for the use in the production of a play are Pustas.
(Embellishment) consists of floral wreaths, jewellery, garments.
- There are five types, i.e. Vestina, Vitata, Sanghatja, Granihima and Pralambita.
(jewellery) in the dramatic performance consists of four kinds- Avedhya (Limbs are pierced and worn), Bandhaniya (that which is tied up), Praksepya (Worn over) and Aropya (Put around). Avedhya ornaments are ear rings. Bandhaniya ornaments are the girdles, arm bands. Praksepya ornaments are the anklets wearing apparel. Aropya ornaments are golden chains necklaces of various kinds.
is the jewel for the shanks, the toe-rings for the toes and the Tilaka for the big toes. There is an extra ornamental embellishment for the feet too. Alaktaka-Raga has to be applied in various designs in order to give them the natural colour of the flowers of the Ashoka tree
These ornaments have to be worn according to the injunctions in the Agamas (traditional treatises). In a dramatic performance no one can embellish the limbs in accordance with his will by using gold, pearls and jewels. In none of these items of dance and dramatic performances the character can be heavily burdened with jewels. They stiffen the movements and cause distress to them. The weight of the ornaments prevents one from moving freely. In case of divine beings embellishment with jewels shall be optional. The women characters are to be distinguished for their own roles by means of ornaments and costumes suited to the various states.
Costumes are the major factor for the womenfolk of the Vidyadharas, Yaksas, Nagas, the celestial ladies and the daughters of the sages. The women of the Siddhas, the Gandharvas, the Raksasas, the Asuras and the human beings also are subject to the same rule. An entirely white dress and make-up should be assigned to the Vidyadharas. Hairs are tied in top knot decorated with the strings of many pearls. The dress style of the Yaksas and the celestial ladies are similar. The Yaksa women must wear simple Sikha (Tuft of hair).
The Naga women have hoods that are embellished with pearls and jewels. The young maidens of the sages have dress style befitting the sylvan atmosphere. Their hairs have a single Veni (braid of hair). The embellishment of Siddha young women consists of pearls and emeralds. Their garments and attire should be of yellow colour. The jewellery of Gandharvas is made of rubies. The celestial damsels are represented as adorned with pearls and lapis Lazuli and clad in the attire resembling the feather of parrots.
The mode of make up and costume of the women are in accordance with their native region as well as the conditions.
Thereafter the male characters have been explained. In their case the painting of the limbs are carried out at the outset by the sponsors of the dramatic performance. After that the make up is done in accordance with the native region that they represent.
The four natural colours are white blue, yellow and red. Angavartana or paintings of the limbs are carried out through these colours. There are other colours also that are produced by the mixture of these colours. After the painting of the body has been done, the character can be proceeded with. The painted body along with the change of the costume should be considered as the result of Natyadharma affecting the characters. A creature that enters the body renounces its previous nature thereby assuming another character.
In the Nataka the Devas, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Yaksas, the Rakshasas and the serpents are called Pranins because they breathe. Hills, Palaces, Yantras, shields, armours, bannerstaffs are known as Apranins. Only after understanding the rules for mixing the colours one should paint the limbs of the characters in accordance with their native region, community and the age. The Devas, yaksas and the celestial damsels are known as the Gauras (pale red). Rudra Arka (Sun), Druhina and Skanda have the golden lustre. Soma (Moon), Brihaspati, Sukra, Varuna, the stars the oceans, the Himalayas and the Ganga as well as Balarama are white. The Mars is in red. Budha and the fire are in yellow. Narayana, Nara, and the serpent Vasuki should be dark in colour.
The Daityas, the Danavas, the Raksasas, the Guhyakas, the Pisacas, deities of mountain, water and the sky are dark. The Yaksas, the Gandharvas, the Vidyadharas are of various colours. Human beings who dwell in the Sapta Dvipas are painted in the colour of the molten gold. In Jambudvipa there are men of diverse colours. The men of Bhadrasva should be represented white complexioned, those of Ketumala blue in complexion.
The Bhutas and the Vamanas have various colours. They have hideous faces like those boars, sheep, buffaloes and deer. Colours of persons vary according to the native region, birth and age. People are painted according to their place of action, time of action, birth and the region they live in. Kiratas, Barbaras, Andhras, Pulindas and the inhabitants of the south are remembered as brownish in colour. Sakas, Yavanas, Pahravas and Vahikas who dwell in the north should be made Gaura complexioned in general.
The Surasenas, Odhras, Magadhas, Arigas, Vaigas and Kalingas are represented in dark blue complexioned. The Brahmins and the Kshatriyas should always be represented as Gaura complexioned. Vaishyas and Shudras are represented in deep blue complexion.
The beard and the moustache are of four kinds, according to the change of states Suddha (pure, white) Syama (black), smartly trimmed and hairy. The beards of religious medicants, ministers, priests and persons averse to sensual pleasures and those that have taken up initiation for rites should be represented clean shaven. The beards of divine male beings like the Siddhas and the Vidyadharas, kings, princes, officers of the king and persons behave like vain dandies, those who are proud of their youth. Dark coloured moustache shall be provided for those who could not keep their promises and those who have been afflicted by calamities. Bushy moustache are assigned to sages and ascetics
At the time of the celebration of a marriage, at some consecratory rite, men and women wear white costumes. This applies to a trader (Prapanika).Costumes of gods, the Danavas, the Yaksas the Gandharvas, the Nagas, the Raksasas, kings and people of tender temperament should have Vichitra Vesha. Costumes of elderly Brahmins Sresthis, ministers, priests, merchant's chamber loins, sages, men of an equal footing with Brahmins Kshatriyas and Vaishyas should be Sudra. Costumes of lunatics, inebriated persons, travellers and persons in adversity should be of malina type.