(Last Updated on : 06/05/2011)
The complete contents of Jaina doctrine are summarized by the dogmatists in 7 terms; they are called the basic truth (Tattva or Padartha). They are:
1. Jiva, the soul
2. Ajiva, the inanimate
3. Ajiva, the influx
4. Bandha, bondage
5. Samvara, warding off
6. Nirjara, wearing away or wiping out
7. Moksa, salvation
The seven basic truths were enumerated by the Digambaras in this way; Swetambaras postulate, on the other hand, basic truths, viz. Punya (reward) and Papa (sin)
Besides those which are mentioned above; they have the 3rd and the 4th position among them. Digambaras do not count these two terms as special categories, but consider that they are included in the following:
The nature of the individual basic truths will emerge from the detailed presentation of Jaina-metaphysics and ethics attempted in the following. There are in the world two groups of eternal and imperishable entities: 1. the animate (Jiva), i.e. the endlessly many, immaterial souls gifted with consciousness and 2. The inanimate (Ajiva), i.e. the substances space motion and obstruction (i.e. the media of movement and rest), time and material objects.
The souls lose the perfection that is peculiar to them under the influence of the inanimate, viz. material objects and get a number of new qualities which are aline to their true nature; a matter flows into them (Asrava) for various reasons and is combined with them (Bandha).
The harmful influx of material objects determining the destiny and the rebirth of a soul can be fought with one's own moral behaviour; entry of new matter into the soul can be obstructed (Sarhvara) and those which are already contained in it can be wiped out (Nirjara). When the soul is completely liberated from the influx of the matter, then the final goal of all the earthly endeavours, i.e. salvation (Moksa) has been reached.