Bhayanaka rasa or the terrible sentiment is one of the essential rasas in the Natyashastra. The Sthayi Bhava of Bhayanaka rasa is Bhaya or fright. The outcome of Bhayanaka rasa is through the Vibhavas or determinants such as Vikrta Rava or terrific noise, Uarsana Sight of apparitions, Sivoluka Trasodvega or the panic and worried state on hearing the cries of jackals and owls, Sunyagara or the Empty house, Aranya Pravesa or entering a forest, Marana or deaths, Svajanavadha or the murder of kings men, Bandhana or Imprisonment, seeing or hearing about or discussing any of these things and the like.
The presentation of Bhayanaka rasa on the stage is through the Anubhavas such as Pravepitakaracarana (trembling of the hands and feet), Nayanachalana (movements of the eyes), Pulaka (hairs standing on ends), Mukha Vaivarnya (Pallor in the face), Svarabheda (change of voice and tone) and the likes. The Vyabhichari bhavas are Stambha (Paralysis), Sveda (Perspiration), Gadgada (Choked Voice). Romanca (horrification), Vepathu (trembling), Svarabheda (change of voice or tone), Vaivarnya (lack of luster), Sanka (suspicion), Moha (fainting), Dainya (dejection), Avega (Agitation), Capala (restlessness), Trasha (fright), Apasmara (epilepsy or loss of memory), Marana (death) etc.
According to the Natyashastra, the Bhayanaka Rasa should be understood as produced through same offensive behaviour towards elders or Kings or by any of the following such as hideous noise, sight of apparitions, seeing a battle, entering the forest or an empty house. Fear is naturally produced and displayed by the various movements of the limbs, face and eyes, stunned sensation in the thighs, looking nervously and uneasily around, dejected feelings, tired face, dryness of the mouth, throbbing of the heart, and horrification. The feigned fright is also to be displayed by these Bhavas but the movements of the limbs are gentler. The Bhayanaka Rasa to be presented on the stage in variably through the trembling of the hands and feet, paralysis, palpitation, agitation in the limbs, parched lips, plate and throat.
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