(Last Updated on : 28-10-2014)
Geography of Buldhana district encompasses the central portion of the state of Maharashtra. The districts of Akola, Jalgaon, Jalna and Parbhani lie adjoining the district of Buldhana. The Nemad district of the Madhya Pradesh
is to the North. The district lies between the north latitudes of 19 degrees 51 minutes and 21 degrees 17 minutes and east longitudes of 75 degrees 57 minutes and 76 degrees 49 minutes. The district Head Quarters is at Buldhana
which is connected to all thirteen talukas of the district by state highway. The state capital of Mumbai
is 450 km to the west and is connected to Buldhana by road.
The climate of Buldhana district is generally dry and hot. Buldhana town itself i.e. district headquarters, has a comparatively cool weather and is considered to be the most pleasant place in district. The general climate of the district is characterised by hot and dry summers and cold winters with the seasonal variation in the temperature being pretty large. Hailstorms are common during February to April and also during the post monsoon period from November to January. The district gets rain mainly from the south west monsoons. The rainfall period is from June to September. However rain generally falls in the months of June and July up to the end of October. The district falls under the assured rainfall zone and average rainfall ranges from 500 to 900 mm.
From the geological point of view, there are no major mineral ores. Some kinds of salts and lead are observed in Lonar Crater but they have not been commercially exploited. The major rock is Basalt hence the major soil type is Regur soil
or Black cotton soil. This is found predominantly in the Jalgaon
, Jamod, Sangrampur, Nandura, Shegaon
, Khamgaon areas. The Deccan
trap covers 80 percent of the total area of the district, and 20 percent is covered by alluvium soil. All the talukas except Jalgaon Jamod, Sangrampur and part of Shegaon talukas are covered by the Deccan trap. The trap is classified in, the following categories.1) Weathered basalt of all types 2) Fractured and Jointed basalt 3) Vesicular geologic basalt 4) Compact massive basalt.
In basalt ground water occurs in joints, fractures and other zones of weakens, which serve as loci for the accumulation of groundwater. Percolation of ground water is controlled by the density of the joint, fractures, and vascules in the Deccan trap. The flow is separated by a tine gap deposition which is known an intertrappens. In the district redboles occur as a major intertrappen which play a very distinct role in the local behaviour of groundwater.